30 research outputs found

    Maps of millimeter wave emission from three galactic star-forming regions

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    In order to investigate the gas dynamics around young stellar objects, three sources were mapped which exhibit supersonic velocities in the 115 GHZ, J = 1-0 transition of CO. The maps, made with the Owens Valley Radio Observatory Millimeter Interferometer, are the highest spatial resolution images currently available of millimeter-wave continuum and line emission from the sources S106, S87, and LkHalpha101. Observations were made in the CS (J = 2-1) and C-13O (J = 1-0) transitions. In all the sources, the observations indicate that the ionized stellar wind is sweeping up ambient molecular gas. The molecular gas is found adjacent to the outer edges of the ionized winds, which originate in embedded infrared sources. From the observations presented, it may be inferred that the outflowing ionized winds are channeled by the surrounding dense, neutral gas

    A Luminous Infrared Companion in the Young Triple System WL 20

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    We present spatially resolved near-infrared and mid-infrared (1-25 microns) imaging of the WL 20 triple system in the nearby (d=125 pc) rho Ophiuchi star-forming cloud core. We find WL 20 to be a new addition to the rare class of "infrared companion systems", with WL 20:E and WL 20:W displaying Class II (T-Tauri star) spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and total luminosities of 0.61 and 0.39 L_sun, respectively, and WL 20:S, the infrared companion, with a Class I (embedded protostellar) SED and a luminosity of 1.0-1.8 L_sun. WL 20:S is found to be highly variable over timescales of years, to be extended (40 AU diameter) at mid-infrared wavelengths, and to be the source of the centimeter emission in the system. The photospheric luminosities, estimated from our data, allow us to compare and test current pre-main-sequence evolutionary tracks. WL 20:E and WL 20:W fall into the region of the H-R diagram in which sources may appear up to twice as old as they actually are using non-accreting tracks, a fact which may reconcile the co-existence of two T-Tauri stars with an embedded protostar in a triple system. The derived masses and observed projected separations of the components of the WL 20 triple system indicate that it is in an unstable dynamical configuration, and may therefore provide an example of dynamical evolution during the pre-main-sequence phase.Comment: AASTeX 5.0, 17 pages, 4 tables, 9 figures, accepted by AJ, to appear Feb. 200

    A tidally interacting disk in the young triple system WL 20?

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    We present high-resolution λ = 2.7 mm imaging of the close triple pre-main-sequence system WL 20. Compact dust emission with integrated flux density of 12.9 ± 1.3 mJy is associated with two components of the triple system, WL 20W and WL 20S. No emission above a 3 σ level of 3.9 mJy is detected toward the third component, WL 20E, which lies 3."17 (400 AU) due east in projection from its neighbors. A possibly warped structure of ~0.1 M_☉ and ≤3."2 extent encompasses WL 20W and WL 20S, which have a projected separation of 2."25 (~280 AU) along a north-south axis. This structure is most likely a tidally disrupted disk surrounding WL 20S. New near-infrared spectra of the individual components show a remarkable similarity between the two T Tauri stars of the system: WL 20E has a K7 spectral type (T_eff = 4040 K) with r_K = 0.2, and WL 20W has an M0 spectral type (T_eff = 3800 K) with r_K = 0.2. The spectrum of WL 20S is consistent with that of a source intrinsically similar to WL 20W, with r_K < 0.9, but seen through an A_V = 25 in addition to the A_V = 16.3 to the system as a whole. Taken together, these millimeter and infrared data help explain the peculiar nature of the infrared companion, WL 20S, as resulting from a large enhancement in its dusty, circumstellar environment in relation to its companions

    IRS Scan-mapping of the Wasp-waist Nebula (IRAS 16253–2429). I. Derivation of Shock Conditions from H_2 Emission and Discovery of 11.3 μm PAH Absorption

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    The outflow driven by the Class 0 protostar, IRAS 16253–2429, is associated with bipolar cavities visible in scattered mid-infrared light, which we refer to as the Wasp-Waist Nebula. InfraRed Spectometer (IRS) scan mapping with the Spitzer Space Telescope of a ~1' × 2' area centered on the protostar was carried out. The outflow is imaged in six pure rotational (0-0 S(2) through 0-0 S(7)) H_2 lines, revealing a distinct, S-shaped morphology in all maps. A source map in the 11.3 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) feature is presented in which the protostellar envelope appears in absorption. This is the first detection of absorption in the 11.3 μm PAH feature. Spatially resolved excitation analysis of positions in the blue- and redshifted outflow lobes, with extinction-corrections determined from archival Spitzer 8 μm imaging, shows remarkably constant temperatures of ~1000 K in the shocked gas. The radiated luminosity in the observed H_2 transitions is found to be 1.94 ± 0.05 × 10^(–5) L_⊙ in the redshifted lobe and 1.86 ± 0.04 × 10^(–5) L_⊙ in the blueshifted lobe. These values are comparable to the mechanical luminosity of the flow. By contrast, the mass of hot (T ~ 1000 K) H_2 gas is 7.95 ± 0.19 × 10^(–7) M_⊙ in the redshifted lobe and 5.78 ± 0.17 × 10^(–7) M_⊙ in the blueshifted lobe. This is just a tiny fraction, of order 10^(–3), of the gas in the cold (30 K), swept-up gas mass derived from millimeter CO observations. The H_2 ortho/para ratio of 3:1 found at all mapped points in this flow suggests previous passages of shocks through the gas. Comparison of the H_2 data with detailed shock models of Wilgenbus et al. shows the emitting gas is passing through Jump (J-type) shocks. Pre-shock densities of 10^4 cm^(–3)≤ n _H ≤ 10^5 cm^(–3) are inferred for the redshifted lobe and n _H ≤ 10^3 cm^(–3) for the blueshifted lobe. Shock velocities are 5 km s^(–1) ≤ v_s ≤ 10 km s^(–1) for the redshifted gas and v_s = 10 km s^(–1) for the blueshifted gas. Initial transverse (to the shock) magnetic field strengths for the redshifted lobe are in the range 10-32 μG, and just 3 μG for the blueshifted lobe. A cookbook for using the CUBISM contributed software for IRS spectral mapping data is presented in the Appendix

    First Evidence of a Precessing Jet Excavating a Protostellar Envelope

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    We present new, sensitive, near-infrared images of the Class I protostar, Elias 29, in the Ophiuchus cloud core. To explore the relationship between the infall envelope and the outflow, narrowband H2 1-0 S(1), Br-gamma, and narrowband K-continuum filters were used to image the source with the Wide-Field Infrared Camera on the Hale 5m telescope and with Persson's Auxiliary Nasmyth Infrared Camera on the Baade 6.5 m telescope. The source appears as a bipolar, scattered light nebula, with a wide opening angle in all filters, as is typical for late-stage protostars. However, the pure H2 emission-line images point to the presence of a heretofore undetected precessing jet. It is argued that high-velocity, narrow, precessing jets provide the mechanism for creating the observed wide-angled outflow cavity in this source.Comment: 11 pages, 1 figure, 1 tabl

    X-ray Properties of Pre--Main-Sequence Stars in the Orion Nebula Cluster with Known Rotation Periods

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    We re-analyze all archival Chandra/ACIS observations of the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC) to study the X-ray properties of a large sample of pre--main-sequence (PMS) stars with optically determined rotation periods. Our goal is to elucidate the origins of X-rays in PMS stars by seeking out connections between the X-rays and the mechanisms most likely driving their production--rotation and accretion. In our sample X-ray luminosity is significantly correlated with stellar rotation, in the sense of decreasing Lx/Lbol with more rapid rotation, suggesting that these stars are in the "super-saturated" regime of the rotation-activity relationship. However, we also find that stars with optical rotation periods are significantly biased to high Lx. This is not the result of magnitude bias in the optical rotation-period sample but rather to the diminishingly small amplitude of optical variations in stars with low Lx. Evidently, there exists in the ONC a population of stars whose rotation periods are unknown and that possess lower average X-ray luminosities than those of stars with known rotation periods. These stars may sample the linear regime of the rotation-activity relationship. Accretion also manifests itself in X-rays, though in a somewhat counterintuitive fashion: While stars with spectroscopic signatures of accretion show harder X-ray spectra than non-accretors, they show lower X-ray luminosities and no enhancement of X-ray variability. We interpret these findings in terms of a common origin for the X-ray emission observed from both accreting and non-accreting stars, with the X-rays from accreting stars simply being attenuated by magnetospheric accretion columns. This suggests that X-rays from PMS stars have their origins primarily in chromospheres, not accretion.Comment: Accepted by the Astronomical Journal. 43 pages, 16 figure

    A Mid-Infrared Imaging Survey of Embedded Young Stellar Objects in the Rho Ophiuchi Cloud Core

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    Results of a comprehensive, new, ground-based mid-infrared imaging survey of the young stellar population of the Rho Ophiuchi cloud are presented. Data were acquired at the Palomar 5-m and at the Keck 10-m telescopes with the MIRLIN and LWS instruments, at 0.25 arcsec and 0.25 arcsec resolutions, respectively. Of 172 survey objects, 85 were detected. Among the 22 multiple systems observed, 15 were resolved and their individual component fluxes determined. A plot of the frequency distribution of the detected objects with SED spectral slope shows that YSOs spend ~400,000 yr in the Flat Spectrum phase, clearing out their remnant infall envelopes. Mid-infrared variability is found among a significant fraction of the surveyed objects, and is found to occur for all SED classes with optically thick disks. Large-amplitude near-infrared variability, also found for all SED classes with optically thick disks, seems to occur with somewhat higher frequency at the earlier evolutionary stages. Although a general trend of mid-infrared excess and NIR veiling exists proceeding through SED classes, with Class I objects generally exhibiting K-veilings > 1, Flat Spectrum objects with K-veilings > 0.58, and Class III objects with K-veilings =0, Class II objects exhibit the widest range of K-band veiling values, 0-4.5. However, the highly variable value of veiling that a single source can exhibit in any of the SED classes in which active disk accretion can take place is striking, and is direct observational evidence for highly time-variable accretion activity in disks. Finally, by comparing mid-infrared vs. near-infrared excesses in a subsample with well-determined effective temperatures and extinction values, disk clearing mechanisms are explored. The results are consistent with disk clearing proceeding from the inside-out.Comment: 18 pages + 5 tables + 7 figure

    A Significant Population of Candidate New Members of the ρ Ophiuchi Cluster

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    We present a general method for identifying the pre-main-sequence population of any star-forming region, unbiased with respect to the presence or absence of disks, in contrast to samples selected primarily via their mid-infrared emission from Spitzer surveys. We have applied this technique to a new, deep, wide-field, near-infrared imaging survey of the ρ Ophiuchi cloud core to search for candidate low-mass members. In conjunction with published Spitzer IRAC photometry and least-squares fits of model spectra (COND, DUSTY, NextGen, and blackbody) to the observed spectral energy distributions, we have identified 948 candidate cloud members within our 90% completeness limits of J = 20.0, H = 20.0, and Ks = 18.50. This population represents a factor of ~3 increase in the number of known young stellar objects in the ρ Ophiuchi cloud. A large fraction of the candidate cluster members (81% ± 3%) exhibit infrared excess emission consistent with the presence of disks, thus strengthening the possibility of their being bona fide cloud members. Spectroscopic follow-up will confirm the nature of individual objects, better constrain their parameters, and allow an initial mass function to be derived
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