4,697 research outputs found

    Heterotic String Models in Curved Spacetime

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    We explore the possibility of string theories in only four spacetime dimensions without any additional compactified dimensions. We show that, provided the theory is defined in curved spacetime that has a cosmological interpration, it is possible to construct consistent heterotic string theories based on a few non-compact current algebra cosets. We classify these models. The gauge groups that emerge fall within a remarkably narrow range and include the desirable low energy flavor symmetry of SU(3)Ă—SU(2)Ă—U(1)SU(3)\times SU(2)\times U(1). The quark and lepton states, which come in color triplets and SU(2)SU(2) doublets, are expected to emerge in several families.Comment: USC-92/HEP-B4, 10 page

    Hidden 12-dimensional structures in AdS(5)xS(5) and M(4)xR(6) Supergravities

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    It is shown that AdS(5)xS(5) supergravity has hitherto unnoticed supersymmetric properties that are related to a hidden 12-dimensional structure. The totality of the AdS(5)xS(5) supergravity Kaluza-Klein towers is given by a single superfield that describes the quantum states of a 12-dimensional supersymmetric particle. The particle has super phase space (X,P,Theta) with (10,2) signature and 32 fermions. The worldline action is constructed as a generalization of the supersymmetric particle action in Two-Time Physics. SU(2,2|4) is a linearly realized global supersymmetry of the 2T action. The action is invariant under the gauge symmetries Sp(2,R), SO(4,2),SO(6), and fermionic kappa. These gauge symmetries insure unitarity and causality while allowing the reduction of the 12-dimensional super phase space to the correct super phase space for AdS(5)xS(5) or M(4)xR(6) with 16 fermions and one time, or other dually related one time spaces. One of the predictions of this formulation is that all of the SU(2,2|4) representations that describe Kaluza-Klein towers in AdS(5)xS(5) or M(4)xR(6) supergravity universally have vanishing eigenvalues for all the Casimir operators. This prediction has been verified directly in AdS(5)xS(5) supergravity. This suggests that the supergravity spectrum supports a hidden (10,2) structure. A possible duality between AdS(5)xS(5) and M(4)xR(6) supergravities is also indicated. Generalizations of the approach applicable 10-dimensional super Yang Mills theory and 11-dimensional M-theory are briefly discussed.Comment: LaTeX, 32 pages. v2 includes additional generalizations in the discussion section. The norm of J has been modified in eqs.(2.6, 3.3, 3.8). v3 includes a correction to Eq.(5.3

    A case for 14 dimensions

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    Extended superalgebras of types A,B,C, heterotic and type-I are all derived as solutions to a BPS equation in 14 dimensions with signature ( 11,3). The BPS equation as well as the solutions are covariant under SO( 11,3). This shows how supersymmetries with N<=8 in four dimensions have their origin in the same superalgebra in 14D. The solutions provide different bases for the same superalgebra in 4D, and the transformations among bases correspond to various dualities.Comment: Latex, 14 page

    Interacting Two-Time Physics Field Theory With a BRST Gauge Invariant Action

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    We construct a field theoretic version of 2T-physics including interactions in an action formalism. The approach is a BRST formulation based on the underlying Sp(2,R)gauge symmetry, and shares some similarities with the approach used to construct string field theory. In our first case of spinless particles, the interaction is uniquely determined by the BRST gauge symmetry, and it is different than the Chern-Simons type theory used in open string field theory. After constructing a BRST gauge invariant action for 2T-physics field theory with interactions in d+2 dimensions, we study its relation to standard 1T-physics field theory in (d-1)+1 dimensions by choosing gauges. In one gauge we show that we obtain the Klein-Gordon field theory in (d-1)+1 dimensions with unique SO(d,2) conformal invariant self interactions at the classical field level. This SO(d,2) is the natural linear Lorentz symmetry of the 2T field theory in d+2 dimensions. As indicated in Fig.1, in other gauges we expect to derive a variety of SO(d,2)invariant 1T-physics field theories as gauge fixed forms of the same 2T field theory, thus obtaining a unification of 1T-dynamics in a field theoretic setting, including interactions. The BRST gauge transformation should play the role of duality transformations among the 1T-physics holographic images of the same parent 2T field theory. The availability of a field theory action opens the way for studying 2T-physics with interactions at the quantum level through the path integral approach.Comment: 22 pages, 1 figure, v3 includes corrections of typos and some comment

    Gravity in 2T-Physics

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    The field theoretic action for gravitational interactions in d+2 dimensions is constructed in the formalism of 2T-physics. General Relativity in d dimensions emerges as a shadow of this theory with one less time and one less space dimensions. The gravitational constant turns out to be a shadow of a dilaton field in d+2 dimensions that appears as a constant to observers stuck in d dimensions. If elementary scalar fields play a role in the fundamental theory (such as Higgs fields in the Standard Model coupled to gravity), then their shadows in d dimensions must necessarily be conformal scalars. This has the physical consequence that the gravitational constant changes at each phase transition (inflation, grand unification, electro-weak, etc.), implying interesting new scenarios in cosmological applications. The fundamental action for pure gravity, which includes the spacetime metric, the dilaton and an additional auxiliary scalar field all in d+2 dimensions with two times, has a mix of gauge symmetries to produce appropriate constraints that remove all ghosts or redundant degrees of freedom. The action produces on-shell classical field equations of motion in d+2 dimensions, with enough constraints for the theory to be in agreement with classical General Relativity in d dimensions. Therefore this action describes the correct classical gravitational physics directly in d+2 dimensions. Taken together with previous similar work on the Standard Model of particles and forces, the present paper shows that 2T-physics is a general consistent framework for a physical theory.Comment: 24 pages, revision includes minor corrections and additional clarifying materia

    Dualities among 1T-Field Theories with Spin, Emerging from a Unifying 2T-Field Theory

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    The relation between two time physics (2T-physics) and the ordinary one time formulation of physics (1T-physics) is similar to the relation between a 3-dimensional object moving in a room and its multiple shadows moving on walls when projected from different perspectives. The multiple shadows as seen by observers stuck on the wall are analogous to the effects of the 2T-universe as experienced in ordinary 1T spacetime. In this paper we develop some of the quantitative aspects of this 2T to 1T relationship in the context of field theory. We discuss 2T field theory in d+2 dimensions and its shadows in the form of 1T field theories when the theory contains Klein-Gordon, Dirac and Yang-Mills fields, such as the Standard Model of particles and forces. We show that the shadow 1T field theories must have hidden relations among themselves. These relations take the form of dualities and hidden spacetime symmetries. A subset of the shadows are 1T field theories in different gravitational backgrounds (different space-times) such as the flat Minkowski spacetime, the Robertson-Walker expanding universe, AdS(d-k) x S(k) and others, including singular ones. We explicitly construct the duality transformations among this conformally flat subset, and build the generators of their hidden SO(d,2) symmetry. The existence of such hidden relations among 1T field theories, which can be tested by both theory and experiment in 1T-physics, is part of the evidence for the underlying d+2 dimensional spacetime and the unifying 2T-physics structure.Comment: 33 pages, LaTe

    Super Yang-Mills in (11,3) Dimensions

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    A supersymmetric Yang-Mills system in (11,3) dimensions is constructed with the aid of two mutually orthogonal null vectors which naturally arise in a generalized spacetime superalgebra. An obstacle encountered in an attempt to extend this result to beyond 14 dimensions is described. A null reduction of the (11,3) model is shown to yield the known super Yang-Mills model in (10,2) dimensions. An (8,8) supersymmetric super Yang-Mills system in (3,3) dimensions is obtained by an ordinary dimensional reduction of the (11,3) model, and it is suggested there may exist a superbrane with (3,3) dimensional worldvolume propagating in (11,3) dimensions.Comment: 13 pages, late

    Superstrings with new supersymmetry in (9,2) and (10,2) dimensions

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    We construct superstring theories that obey the new supersymmetry algebra {Q_a , Q_b}=\gamma_{ab}^{mn} P_{1m} P_{2n}, in a Green-Schwarz formalism, with kappa supersymmetry also of the new type. The superstring is in a system with a superparticle so that their total momenta are P2n,P1mP_{2n},P_{1m} respectively. The system is covariant and critical in (10,2) dimensions if the particle is massless and in (9,2) dimensions if the particle is massive. Both the superstring and superparticle have coordinates with two timelike dimensions but each behaves effectively as if they have a single timelike dimension. This is due to gauge symmetries and associated constraints. We show how to generalize the gauge principle to more intricate systems containing two parts, 1 and 2. Each part contains interacting constituents, such as p-branes, and each part behaves effectively as if they have one timelike coordinate, although the full system has two timelike coordinates. The examples of two superparticles, and of a superparticle and a superstring, discussed in more detail are a special cases of such a generalized interacting system.Comment: LaTeX, revtex, 9 page

    Hidden Symmetries, AdS_D x S^n, and the lifting of one-time-physics to two-time-physics

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    The massive non-relativistic free particle in d-1 space dimensions has an action with a surprizing non-linearly realized SO(d,2) symmetry. This is the simplest example of a host of diverse one-time-physics systems with hidden SO(d,2) symmetric actions. By the addition of gauge degrees of freedom, they can all be lifted to the same SO(d,2) covariant unified theory that includes an extra spacelike and an extra timelike dimension. The resulting action in d+2 dimensions has manifest SO(d,2) Lorentz symmetry and a gauge symmetry Sp(2,R) and it defines two-time-physics. Conversely, the two-time action can be gauge fixed to diverse one-time physical systems. In this paper three new gauge fixed forms that correspond to the non-relativistic particle, the massive relativistic particle, and the particle in AdS_(d-n) x S^n spacetime will be discussed. The last case is discussed at the first quantized and field theory levels as well. For the last case the popularly known symmetry is SO(d-n-1,2) x SO(n+1), but yet we show that it is symmetric under the larger SO(d,2). In the field theory version the action is symmetric under the full SO(d,2) provided it is improved with a quantized mass term that arises as an anomaly from operator ordering ambiguities. The anomalous cosmological term vanishes for AdS_2 x S^0 and AdS_n x S^n (i.e. d=2n). The strikingly larger symmetry could be significant in the context of the proposed AdS/CFT duality.Comment: Latex, 23 pages. The term "cosmological constant" that appeared in the original version has been changed to "mass term". My apologies for the confusio

    Gauge symmetry in phase space with spin, a basis for conformal symmetry and duality among many interactions

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    We show that a simple OSp(1/2) worldline gauge theory in 0-brane phase space (X,P), with spin degrees of freedom, formulated for a d+2 dimensional spacetime with two times X^0,, X^0', unifies many physical systems which ordinarily are described by a 1-time formulation. Different systems of 1-time physics emerge by choosing gauges that embed ordinary time in d+2 dimensions in different ways. The embeddings have different topology and geometry for the choice of time among the d+2 dimensions. Thus, 2-time physics unifies an infinite number of 1-time physical interacting systems, and establishes a kind of duality among them. One manifestation of the two times is that all of these physical systems have the same quantum Hilbert space in the form of a unique representation of SO(d,2) with the same Casimir eigenvalues. By changing the number n of spinning degrees of freedom the gauge group changes to OSp(n/2). Then the eigenvalue of the Casimirs of SO(d,2) depend on n and then the content of the 1-time physical systems that are unified in the same representation depend on n. The models we study raise new questions about the nature of spacetime.Comment: Latex, 42 pages. v2 improvements in AdS section. In v3 sec.6.2 is modified; the more general potential is limited to a smaller clas
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