4,063 research outputs found

    Stable Isotropic Cosmological Singularities in Quadratic Gravity

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    We show that, in quadratic lagrangian theories of gravity, isotropic cosmological singularities are stable to the presence of small scalar, vector and tensor inhomogeneities. Unlike in general relativity, a particular exact isotropic solution is shown to be the stable attractor on approach to the initial cosmological singularity. This solution is also known to act as an attractor in Bianchi universes of types I, II and IX, and the results of this paper reinforce the hypothesis that small inhomogeneous and anisotropic perturbations of this attractor form part of the general cosmological solution to the field equations of quadratic gravity. Implications for the existence of a 'gravitational entropy' are also discussed.Comment: 18 pages, no figure

    Cosmological Co-evolution of Yang-Mills Fields and Perfect Fluids

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    We study the co-evolution of Yang-Mills fields and perfect fluids in Bianchi type I universes. We investigate numerically the evolution of the universe and the Yang-Mills fields during the radiation and dust eras of a universe that is almost isotropic. The Yang-Mills field undergoes small amplitude chaotic oscillations, which are also displayed by the expansion scale factors of the universe. The results of the numerical simulations are interpreted analytically and compared with past studies of the cosmological evolution of magnetic fields in radiation and dust universes. We find that, whereas magnetic universes are strongly constrained by the microwave background anisotropy, Yang-Mills universes are principally constrained by primordial nucleosynthesis and the bound is comparatively weak, and Omega_YM < 0.105 Omega_rad.Comment: 13 pages, 5 figures, submitted to PR

    Cosmologies with Energy Exchange

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    We provide a simple mathematical description of the exchange of energy between two fluids in an expanding Friedmann universe with zero spatial curvature. The evolution can be reduced to a single non-linear differential equation which we solve in physically relevant cases and provide an analysis of all the possible evolutions. Particular power-law solutions exist for the expansion scale factor and are attractors at late times under particular conditions. We show how a number of problems studied in the literature, such as cosmological vacuum energy decay, particle annihilation, and the evolution of a population of evaporating black holes, correspond to simple particular cases of our model. In all cases we can determine the effects of the energy transfer on the expansion scale factor. We also consider the situation in the presence of anti-decaying fluids and so called phantom fluids which violate the dominant energy conditions.Comment: 12 pages, 1 figur

    A New Solution of The Cosmological Constant Problems

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    We extend the usual gravitational action principle by promoting the bare cosmological constant (CC) from a parameter to a field which can take many possible values. Variation leads to a new integral constraint equation which determines the classical value of the effective CC that dominates the wave function of the universe. In a realistic cosmological model, the expected value of the effective CC, is calculated from measurable quantities to be O(t_U), as observed, where t_U is the present age of the universe in Planck units,. Any application of our model produces a falsifiable prediction for Λ\Lambda in terms of other measurable quantities. This leads to a specific falsifiable prediction for the observed spatial curvature parameter of Omega_k0=-0.0055. Our testable proposal requires no fine tunings or extra dark-energy fields but does suggest a new view of time and cosmological evolution.Comment: 5 pages; v3: version accepted by Phys. Rev. Let

    Anisotropically Inflating Universes

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    We show that in theories of gravity that add quadratic curvature invariants to the Einstein-Hilbert action there exist expanding vacuum cosmologies with positive cosmological constant which do not approach the de Sitter universe. Exact solutions are found which inflate anisotropically. This behaviour is driven by the Ricci curvature invariant and has no counterpart in the general relativistic limit. These examples show that the cosmic no-hair theorem does not hold in these higher-order extensions of general relativity and raises new questions about the ubiquity of inflation in the very early universe and the thermodynamics of gravitational fields.Comment: 5 pages, further discussion and references adde

    Cosmological Constraints on a Dynamical Electron Mass

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    Motivated by recent astrophysical observations of quasar absorption systems, we formulate a simple theory where the electron to proton mass ratio μ=me/mp\mu =m_{e}/m_{p} is allowed to vary in space-time. In such a minimal theory only the electron mass varies, with α\alpha and mpm_{p} kept constant. We find that changes in μ\mu will be driven by the electronic energy density after the electron mass threshold is crossed. Particle production in this scenario is negligible. The cosmological constraints imposed by recent astronomical observations are very weak, due to the low mass density in electrons. Unlike in similar theories for spacetime variation of the fine structure constant, the observational constraints on variations in μ\mu imposed by the weak equivalence principle are much more stringent constraints than those from quasar spectra. Any time-variation in the electron-proton mass ratio must be less than one part in 10910^{9}since redshifts z1.z\approx 1.This is more than one thousand times smaller than current spectroscopic sensitivities can achieve. Astronomically observable variations in the electron-proton must therefore arise directly from effects induced by varying fine structure 'constant' or by processes associated with internal proton structure. We also place a new upper bound of 2×1082\times 10^{-8} on any large-scale spatial variation of μ\mu that is compatible with the isotropy of the microwave background radiation.Comment: New bounds from weak equivalence principle experiments added, conclusions modifie