12,585 research outputs found

    Fluctuations induce transitions in frustrated sparse networks

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    We analyze, by means of statistical mechanics, a sparse network with random competitive interactions among dichotomic variables pasted on the nodes, namely a Viana-Bray model. The model is described by an infinite series of order parameters (the multi-overlaps) and has two tunable degrees of freedom: the noise level and the connectivity (the averaged number of links). We show that there are no multiple transition lines, one for every order parameter, as a naive approach would suggest, but just one corresponding to ergodicity breaking. We explain this scenario within a novel and simple mathematical technique via a driving mechanism such that, as the first order parameter (the two replica overlap) becomes different from zero due to a real second order phase transition (with properly associated diverging rescaled fluctuations), it enforces all the other multi-overlaps toward positive values thanks to the strong correlations which develop among themselves and the two replica overlap at the critical line

    Multi-species mean-field spin-glasses. Rigorous results

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    We study a multi-species spin glass system where the density of each species is kept fixed at increasing volumes. The model reduces to the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick one for the single species case. The existence of the thermodynamic limit is proved for all densities values under a convexity condition on the interaction. The thermodynamic properties of the model are investigated and the annealed, the replica symmetric and the replica symmetry breaking bounds are proved using Guerra's scheme. The annealed approximation is proved to be exact under a high temperature condition. We show that the replica symmetric solution has negative entropy at low temperatures. We study the properties of a suitably defined replica symmetry breaking solution and we optimise it within a ziggurat ansatz. The generalized order parameter is described by a Parisi-like partial differential equation.Comment: 17 pages, to appear in Annales Henri Poincar\`

    Stochastic thermodynamics of quantum maps with and without equilibrium

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    We study stochastic thermodynamics for a quantum system of interest whose dynamics are described by a completely positive trace-preserving (CPTP) map as a result of its interaction with a thermal bath. We define CPTP maps with equilibrium as CPTP maps with an invariant state such that the entropy production due to the action of the map on the invariant state vanishes. Thermal maps are a subgroup of CPTP maps with equilibrium. In general, for CPTP maps, the thermodynamic quantities, such as the entropy production or work performed on the system, depend on the combined state of the system plus its environment. We show that these quantities can be written in terms of system properties for maps with equilibrium. The relations that we obtain are valid for arbitrary coupling strengths between the system and the thermal bath. The fluctuations of thermodynamic quantities are considered in the framework of a two-point measurement scheme. We derive the entropy production fluctuation theorem for general maps and a fluctuation relation for the stochastic work on a system that starts in the Gibbs state. Some simplifications for the probability distributions in the case of maps with equilibrium are presented. We illustrate our results by considering spin 1/2 systems under thermal maps, non-thermal maps with equilibrium, maps with non-equilibrium steady states and concatenations of them. Finally, we consider a particular limit in which the concatenation of maps generates a continuous time evolution in Lindblad form for the system of interest, and we show that the concept of maps with and without equilibrium translates into Lindblad equations with and without quantum detailed balance, respectively. The consequences for the thermodynamic quantities in this limit are discussed.Comment: 17 pages, 4 figures; new section added, typos correcte

    The dark side of centromeres: types, causes and consequences of structural abnormalities implicating centromeric DNA

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    Centromeres are the chromosomal domains required to ensure faithful transmission of the genome during cell division. They have a central role in preventing aneuploidy, by orchestrating the assembly of several components required for chromosome separation. However, centromeres also adopt a complex structure that makes them susceptible to being sites of chromosome rearrangements. Therefore, preservation of centromere integrity is a difficult, but important task for the cell. In this review, we discuss how centromeres could potentially be a source of genome instability and how centromere aberrations and rearrangements are linked with human diseases such as cancer
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