3,076 research outputs found

    A simple topological model with continuous phase transition

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    In the area of topological and geometric treatment of phase transitions and symmetry breaking in Hamiltonian systems, in a recent paper some general sufficient conditions for these phenomena in Z2\mathbb{Z}_2-symmetric systems (i.e. invariant under reflection of coordinates) have been found out. In this paper we present a simple topological model satisfying the above conditions hoping to enlighten the mechanism which causes this phenomenon in more general physical models. The symmetry breaking is testified by a continuous magnetization with a nonanalytic point in correspondence of a critical temperature which divides the broken symmetry phase from the unbroken one. A particularity with respect to the common pictures of a phase transition is that the nonanalyticity of the magnetization is not accompanied by a nonanalytic behavior of the free energy.Comment: 17 pages, 7 figure

    Noise-driven Synchronization in Coupled Map Lattices

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    Synchronization is shown to occur in spatially extended systems under the effect of additive spatio-temporal noise. In analogy to low dimensional systems, synchronized states are observable only if the maximum Lyapunov exponent Λ\Lambda is negative. However, a sufficiently high noise level can lead, in map with finite domain of definition, to nonlinear propagation of information, even in non chaotic systems. In this latter case the transition to synchronization is ruled by a new ingredient : the propagation velocity of information VFV_F. As a general statement, we can affirm that if VFV_F is finite the time needed to achieve a synchronized trajectory grows exponentially with the system size LL, while it increases logarithmically with LL when, for sufficiently large noise amplitude, VF=0V_F = 0 .Comment: 11 pages, Latex - 6 EPS Figs - Proceeding LSD 98 (Marseille

    Topological conditions for discrete symmetry breaking and phase transitions

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    In the framework of a recently proposed topological approach to phase transitions, some sufficient conditions ensuring the presence of the spontaneous breaking of a Z_2 symmetry and of a symmetry-breaking phase transition are introduced and discussed. A very simple model, which we refer to as the hypercubic model, is introduced and solved. The main purpose of this model is that of illustrating the content of the sufficient conditions, but it is interesting also in itself due to its simplicity. Then some mean-field models already known in the literature are discussed in the light of the sufficient conditions introduced here

    Tritium β\beta-decay in chiral effective field theory

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    We evaluate the Fermi and Gamow-Teller (GT) matrix elements in tritium β\beta-decay by including in the charge-changing weak current the corrections up to one loop recently derived in nuclear chiral effective field theory (χ\chi EFT). The trinucleon wave functions are obtained from hyperspherical-harmonics solutions of the Schrodinger equation with two- and three-nucleon potentials corresponding to either χ\chi EFT (the N3LO/N2LO combination) or meson-exchange phenomenology (the AV18/UIX combination). We find that contributions due to loop corrections in the axial current are, in relative terms, as large as (and in some cases, dominate) those from one-pion exchange, which nominally occur at lower order in the power counting. We also provide values for the low-energy constants multiplying the contact axial current and three-nucleon potential, required to reproduce the experimental GT matrix element and trinucleon binding energies in the N3LO/N2LO and AV18/UIX calculations.Comment: 19 pages,6 figures, corrections to Text as suggested by Referee added; Erratum: 4 pages, 3 figures, corrections to Eq.(20), Tables I, II, III, Figures 4, 5, conclusions unchange

    A chiral effective field theory study of hadronic parity violation in few-nucleon systems

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    We reconsider the derivation of the nucleon-nucleon parity-violating (PV) potential within a chiral effective field theory framework. We construct the potential up to next-to-next-to-leading order by including one-pion-exchange, two-pion-exchange, contact, and 1/M (M being the nucleon mass) terms, and use dimensional regularization to renormalize the pion-loop corrections. A detailed analysis of the number of independent low-energy constants (LEC's) entering the potential is carried out. We find that it depends on six LEC's: the pion-nucleon PV coupling constant hπ1h^1_\pi and five parameters multiplying contact interactions. We investigate PV effects induced by this potential on several few-nucleon observables, including the p⃗\vec{p}-pp longitudinal asymmetry, the neutron spin rotation in n⃗\vec{n}-pp and n⃗\vec{n}-dd scattering, and the longitudinal asymmetry in the 3^3He(n⃗,p)3(\vec{n},p)^3H charge-exchange reaction. An estimate for the range of values of the various LEC's is provided by using available experimental data.Comment: 31 pages, 7 figures, submitted to Physical Review

    Accurate quadratic-response approximation for the self-consistent pseudopotential of semiconductor nanostructures

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    Quadratic-response theory is shown to provide a conceptually simple but accurate approximation for the self-consistent one-electron potential of semiconductor nanostructures. Numerical examples are presented for GaAs/AlAs and InGaAs/InP (001) superlattices using the local-density approximation to density-functional theory and norm-conserving pseudopotentials without spin-orbit coupling. When the reference crystal is chosen to be the virtual-crystal average of the two bulk constituents, the absolute error in the quadratic-response potential for Gamma(15) valence electrons is about 2 meV for GaAs/AlAs and 5 meV for InGaAs/InP. Low-order multipole expansions of the electron density and potential response are shown to be accurate throughout a small neighborhood of each reciprocal lattice vector, thus providing a further simplification that is confirmed to be valid for slowly varying envelope functions. Although the linear response is about an order of magnitude larger than the quadratic response, the quadratic terms are important both quantitatively (if an accuracy of better than a few tens of meV is desired) and qualitatively (due to their different symmetry and long-range dipole effects).Comment: 16 pages, 20 figures; v2: new section on limitations of theor

    GW quasi-particle spectra from occupied states only

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    We introduce a method that allows for the calculation of quasi-particle spectra in the GW approximation, yet avoiding any explicit reference to empty one-electron states. This is achieved by expressing the irreducible polarizability operator and the self-energy operator through a set of linear response equations, which are solved using a Lanczos-chain algorithm. We first validate our approach by calculating the vertical ionization energies of the benzene molecule and then show its potential by addressing the spectrum of a large molecule such as free-base tetraphenylporphyrin.Comment: 4 pages, 3 figure

    Electron-vibration coupling constants in positively charged fullerene

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    Recent experiments have shown that C60 can be positively field-doped. In that state, fullerene exhibits a higher resistivity and a higher superconducting temperature than the corresponding negatively doped state. A strong intramolecular hole-phonon coupling, connected with the Jahn-Teller effect of the isolated positive ion, is expected to be important for both properties, but the actual coupling strengths are so far unknown. Based on density functional calculations, we determine the linear couplings of the two a_g, six g_g, and eight h_g vibrational modes to the H_u HOMO level of the C60 molecule. The couplings predict a D_5 distortion, and an H_u vibronic ground state for C60^+. They are also used to generate the dimensionless coupling constant which controls the superconductivity and the phonon contribution to the electrical resistivity in the crystalline phase. We find that is 1.4 times larger in positively-charged C60 than in the negatively-doped case. These results are discussed in the context of the available transport data and superconducting temperatures. The role of higher orbital degeneracy in superconductivity is also addressed.Comment: 22 pages - 3 figures. This revision includes few punctuation corrections from proofreadin

    Energy saving for air supply in a real WWTP: application of a fuzzy logic controller.

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    Abstract An unconventional cascade control system, for the regulation of air supply in activated sludge wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), was tested. The dissolved oxygen (DO) set point in the aeration tank was dynamically calculated based on effluent ammonia concentration, following a fuzzy logic based approach. First, simulations were conducted, according to the BSM2 protocol, for a general comparison with more conventional control strategies. It turned out that the effluent quality could be improved by 7–8%, based on the EQI parameter. Moreover, the aeration energy requirement could be reduced up to 13%. Subsequently, the system was installed in a full-scale WWTP. While stably complying with the ammonia effluent standard (10 mg/L), excess air supply was prevented, and a reduction of the specific power consumption (kWh/kgCODremoved) of 40–50% was recorded with respect to the previously installed PID controller (fixed DO set point)
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