18,516 research outputs found

    A 3D radiative transfer framework: IV. spherical & cylindrical coordinate systems

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    We extend our framework for 3D radiative transfer calculations with a non-local operator splitting methods along (full) characteristics to spherical and cylindrical coordinate systems. These coordinate systems are better suited to a number of physical problems than Cartesian coordinates. The scattering problem for line transfer is solved via means of an operator splitting (OS) technique. The formal solution is based on a full characteristics method. The approximate Λ\Lambda operator is constructed considering nearest neighbors exactly. The code is parallelized over both wavelength and solid angle using the MPI library. We present the results of several test cases with different values of the thermalization parameter for the different coordinate systems. The results are directly compared to 1D plane parallel tests. The 3D results agree very well with the well-tested 1D calculations.Comment: A&A, in pres

    Parallel Implementation of the PHOENIX Generalized Stellar Atmosphere Program

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    We describe the parallel implementation of our generalized stellar atmosphere and NLTE radiative transfer computer program PHOENIX. We discuss the parallel algorithms we have developed for radiative transfer, spectral line opacity, and NLTE opacity and rate calculations. Our implementation uses a MIMD design based on a relatively small number of MPI library calls. We report the results of test calculations on a number of different parallel computers and discuss the results of scalability tests.Comment: To appear in ApJ, 1997, vol 483. LaTeX, 34 pages, 3 Figures, uses AASTeX macros and styles natbib.sty, and psfig.st

    A 3D radiative transfer framework: XI. multi-level NLTE

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    Multi-level non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) radiation transfer calculations have become standard throughout the stellar atmospheres community and are applied to all types of stars as well as dynamical systems such as novae and supernovae. Even today spherically symmetric 1D calculations with full physics are computationally intensive. We show that full NLTE calculations can be done with fully 3 dimensional (3D) radiative transfer. With modern computational techniques and current massive parallel computational resources, full detailed solution of the multi-level NLTE problem coupled to the solution of the radiative transfer scattering problem can be solved without sacrificing the micro physics description. We extend the use of a rate operator developed to solve the coupled NLTE problem in spherically symmetric 1D systems. In order to spread memory among processors we have implemented the NLTE/3D module with a hierarchical domain decomposition method that distributes the NLTE levels, radiative rates, and rate operator data over a group of processes so that each process only holds the data for a fraction of the voxels. Each process in a group holds all the relevant data to participate in the solution of the 3DRT problem so that the 3DRT solution is parallelized within a domain decomposition group. We solve a spherically symmetric system in 3D spherical coordinates in order to directly compare our well-tested 1D code to the 3D case. We compare three levels of tests: a) a simple H+He test calculation, b) H+He+CNO+Mg, c) H+He+Fe. The last test is computationally large and shows that realistic astrophysical problems are solvable now, but they do require significant computational resources. With presently available computational resources it is possible to solve the full 3D multi-level problem with the same detailed micro-physics as included in 1D modeling.Comment: 20 pages, 14 figures, A&A, in pres

    A 3D radiative transfer framework: III. periodic boundary conditions

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    We present a general method to solve radiative transfer problems including scattering in the continuum as well as in lines in 3D configurations with periodic boundary conditions. he scattering problem for line transfer is solved via means of an operator splitting (OS) technique. The formal solution is based on a full characteristics method. The approximate Λ\Lambda operator is constructed considering nearest neighbors exactly. The code is parallelized over both wavelength and solid angle using the MPI library. We present the results of several test cases with different values of the thermalization parameter and two choices for the temperature structure. The results are directly compared to 1D plane parallel tests. The 3D results agree very well with the well-tested 1D calculations.Comment: A&A, in press, visualization figure omitted due to size, available at ftp://phoenix.hs.uni-hamburg.de/preprints/3DRT_paper3.pd

    Numerical Solution of the Expanding Stellar Atmosphere Problem

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    In this paper we discuss numerical methods and algorithms for the solution of NLTE stellar atmosphere problems involving expanding atmospheres, e.g., found in novae, supernovae and stellar winds. We show how a scheme of nested iterations can be used to reduce the high dimension of the problem to a number of problems with smaller dimensions. As examples of these sub-problems, we discuss the numerical solution of the radiative transfer equation for relativistically expanding media with spherical symmetry, the solution of the multi-level non-LTE statistical equilibrium problem for extremely large model atoms, and our temperature correction procedure. Although modern iteration schemes are very efficient, parallel algorithms are essential in making large scale calculations feasible, therefore we discuss some parallelization schemes that we have developed.Comment: JCAM, in press. 28 pages, also available at ftp://calvin.physast.uga.edu:/pub/preprints/CompAstro.ps.g

    Detailed Spectral Analysis of the Type Ib Supernova 1999dn. Paper I: Hydrogen-free Models

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    We present spectral fits to five epochs of the typical Type Ib supernova 1999dn using the generalized, non-LTE, stellar atmospheres code PHOENIX. Our goal is threefold: to determine basic physical properties of the supernova ejecta, such as velocity, temperature, and density gradients; to reproduce He I absorption lines by invoking non-thermal excitation; and, to investigate possible spectral signatures of hydrogen, especially a feature around 6200 Angstrom, which has been attributed to high velocity HαH_\alpha. Our models assume an atmosphere with uniform composition devoid of any hydrogen. Our model spectra fit the observed spectra well, successfully reproducing most of the features, including the prominent He I absorptions. The most plausible alternative to HαH_\alpha as the source of the 6200 Angstrom feature is a blend of Fe II and Si II lines, which can be made stronger to fit the observed feature better by increasing the metallicity of the ejecta. High-metallicity models fit well at early epochs, but not as well as solar-metallicity models after maximum light. While this blend of metal lines is a reasonable explanation of the source of the 6200 Angstrom feature, it is still important to investigate hydrogen as the source; therefore, a second paper will present models that include a thin shell of hydrogen around the main composition structure.Comment: 24 pages, 11 figures, 2 tables, submitted to Ap

    General Relativistic Radiative Transfer

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    We present a general method to calculate radiative transfer including scattering in the continuum as well as in lines in spherically symmetric systems that are influenced by the effects of general relativity (GR). We utilize a comoving wavelength ansatz that allows to resolve spectral lines throughout the atmosphere. The used numerical solution is an operator splitting (OS) technique that uses a characteristic formal solution. The bending of photon paths and the wavelength shifts due to the effects of GR are fully taken into account, as is the treatment of image generation in a curved spacetime. We describe the algorithm we use and demonstrate the effects of GR on the radiative transport of a two level atom line in a neutron star like atmosphere for various combinations of continuous and line scattering coefficients. In addition, we present grey continuum models and discuss the effects of different scattering albedos on the emergent spectra and the determination of effective temperatures and radii of neutron star atmospheres
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