6 research outputs found

    Compiler-Injected SIHFT for Embedded Operating Systems

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    Random hardware faults are a major concern for critical systems, especially when they are employed in high-radiation environments such as aerospace applications. While specialised hardware already exists for implementing fault tolerance, software solutions, named Software-Implemented Hardware Fault Tolerance (SIHFT), offer higher flexibility at a lower cost. This work describes a compiler-based approach for inserting instruction-level fault detection mechanisms in both the application code and the operating system. An experimental evaluation on a STM32 board running FreeRTOS shows the effectiveness of the proposed approach in detecting faults

    RISC-V-Based Platforms for HPC: Analyzing Non-functional Properties for Future HPC and Big-Data Clusters

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    High-Performance Computing (HPC) have evolved to be used to perform simulations of systems where physical experimentation is prohibitively impractical, expensive, or dangerous. This paper provides a general overview and showcases the analysis of non-functional properties in RISC-V-based platforms for HPCs. In particular, our analyses target the evaluation of power and energy control, thermal management, and reliability assessment of promising systems, structures, and technologies devised for current and future generation of HPC machines. The main set of design methodologies and technologies developed within the activities of the Future and HPC & Big Data spoke of the National Centre of HPC, Big Data and Quantum Computing project are described along with the description of the testbed for experimenting two-phase cooling approaches

    Reducing the environmental impact of surgery on a global scale: systematic review and co-prioritization with healthcare workers in 132 countries

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    Abstract Background Healthcare cannot achieve net-zero carbon without addressing operating theatres. The aim of this study was to prioritize feasible interventions to reduce the environmental impact of operating theatres. Methods This study adopted a four-phase Delphi consensus co-prioritization methodology. In phase 1, a systematic review of published interventions and global consultation of perioperative healthcare professionals were used to longlist interventions. In phase 2, iterative thematic analysis consolidated comparable interventions into a shortlist. In phase 3, the shortlist was co-prioritized based on patient and clinician views on acceptability, feasibility, and safety. In phase 4, ranked lists of interventions were presented by their relevance to high-income countries and low‚Äďmiddle-income countries. Results In phase 1, 43 interventions were identified, which had low uptake in practice according to 3042 professionals globally. In phase 2, a shortlist of 15 intervention domains was generated. In phase 3, interventions were deemed acceptable for more than 90 per cent of patients except for reducing general anaesthesia (84 per cent) and re-sterilization of ‚Äėsingle-use‚Äô consumables (86 per cent). In phase 4, the top three shortlisted interventions for high-income countries were: introducing recycling; reducing use of anaesthetic gases; and appropriate clinical waste processing. In phase 4, the top three shortlisted interventions for low‚Äďmiddle-income countries were: introducing reusable surgical devices; reducing use of consumables; and reducing the use of general anaesthesia. Conclusion This is a step toward environmentally sustainable operating environments with actionable interventions applicable to both high‚Äď and low‚Äďmiddle‚Äďincome countries

    Valorisation of Bovine Sweet Whey and Sunflower Press Cake Blend through Controlled Fermentation as Platform for Innovative Food Materials

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    The current environmental challenge is pushing food systems towards more sustainable models of production that require reorganizing of processes by re-using side products still containing nutrients. This work aimed at valorising a mix of bovine sweet whey and sunflower press cake, through targeted fermentation. After preliminary screening based on growth rate, final pH, lactose/galactose assimilation, phytase activity, six Lactic Acid Bacteria strains (Lacticaseibacillus casei, L. paracasei (2), Lactococcus lactis, Lentilactobacillus parakefiri and Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides) and three yeasts (Kluyveromyces lactis, K. marxianus and Torulaspora delbrueckii) were co-cultivated in pairs in microcosms (1-part ground press cake: 4-parts whey). All tested microorganisms were able to grow and acidify the blend: the LAB counts increased during the incubation (26 ¬įC for 48 h) of +2.80 log CFU/g, whereas yeasts counts were of +1.98 log CFU/g, with significant differences among the different associations (p p L. lactis or L. paracasei and K. lactis or K. marxianus

    Effects of pre‚Äźoperative isolation on postoperative pulmonary complications after elective surgery: an international prospective cohort study

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    We aimed to determine the impact of pre-operative isolation on postoperative pulmonary complications after elective surgery during the global SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. We performed an international prospective cohort study including patients undergoing elective surgery in October 2020. Isolation was defined as the period before surgery during which patients did not leave their house or receive visitors from outside their household. The primary outcome was postoperative pulmonary complications, adjusted in multivariable models for measured confounders. Pre-defined sub-group analyses were performed for the primary outcome. A total of 96,454 patients from 114 countries were included and overall, 26,948 (27.9%) patients isolated before surgery. Postoperative pulmonary complications were recorded in 1947 (2.0%) patients of which 227 (11.7%) were associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Patients who isolated pre-operatively were older, had more respiratory comorbidities and were more commonly from areas of high SARS-CoV-2 incidence and high-income countries. Although the overall rates of postoperative pulmonary complications were similar in those that isolated and those that did not (2.1% vs 2.0%, respectively), isolation was associated with higher rates of postoperative pulmonary complications after adjustment (adjusted OR 1.20, 95%CI 1.05-1.36, p = 0.005). Sensitivity analyses revealed no further differences when patients were categorised by: pre-operative testing; use of COVID-19-free pathways; or community SARS-CoV-2 prevalence. The rate of postoperative pulmonary complications increased with periods of isolation longer than 3 days, with an OR (95%CI) at 4-7 days or >= 8 days of 1.25 (1.04-1.48), p = 0.015 and 1.31 (1.11-1.55), p = 0.001, respectively. Isolation before elective surgery might be associated with a small but clinically important increased risk of postoperative pulmonary complications. Longer periods of isolation showed no reduction in the risk of postoperative pulmonary complications. These findings have significant implications for global provision of elective surgical care

    Global attitudes in the management of acute appendicitis during COVID-19 pandemic: ACIE Appy Study