1,734 research outputs found

    What is the Role of International Dispute Resolution in Interpreting Domestic Disputes?

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    What is the Role of International Dispute Resolution in Interpreting Domestic Disputes?

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    Simulation of 3-D viscous flow within a multi-stage turbine

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    This work outlines a procedure for simulating the flow field within multistage turbomachinery which includes the effects of unsteadiness, compressibility, and viscosity. The associated modeling equations are the average passage equation system which governs the time-averaged flow field within a typical passage of a blade row embedded within a multistage configuration. The results from a simulation of a low aspect ratio stage and a one-half turbine will be presented and compared with experimental measurements. It will be shown that the secondary flow field generated by the rotor causes the aerodynamic performance of the downstream vane to be significantly different from that of an isolated blade row

    Average-passage flow model development

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    A 3-D model was developed for simulating multistage turbomachinery flows using supercomputers. This average passage flow model described the time averaged flow field within a typical passage of a bladed wheel within a multistage configuration. To date, a number of inviscid simulations were executed to assess the resolution capabilities of the model. Recently, the viscous terms associated with the average passage model were incorporated into the inviscid computer code along with an algebraic turbulence model. A simulation of a stage-and-one-half, low speed turbine was executed. The results of this simulation, including a comparison with experimental data, is discussed

    The Role of United States Trade Laws in Resolving the Florida-Mexico Tomato Conflict

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    For discussion purposes, we have been asked to assume that the agreement entered into in October 1996 between the U.S. Department of Commerce (Commerce) and Mexican tomato exporters, which resulted in suspension of an antidumping investigation of tomatoes from Mexico, has ended. The new owner of many of Florida\u27s winter vegetable producers, concerned with the continuing rise in market share represented by Mexican imports, is considering further action under the trade remedy and other laws. This article will discuss the potential role of the antidumping and countervailing duty laws in these deliberations, as well as the operation of the dispute settlement mechanisms of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the World Trade Organization (WTO)

    The site and stoichiometry of the N-phenylmaleimide reaction with myosin when weakly-binding crossbridges are formed in skinned rabbit psoas fibers

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    AbstractTreatment of relaxed skinned rabbit psoas muscle fibers with 0.1 mM N-phenylmaleimide (NPM) for 1 h locks all of the crossbridges in a weakly-binding state resembling that of the myosin ATP crossbridge. Under these conditions, NPM reacts mainly with myosin heavy chain (Barnett et al. (1992) Biophys. J. 61, 358–367). Here the specific sites for that reaction are explored. Small bundles of rabbit psoas muscle fibers were treated with Triton X-100 to make the fiber sarcolemmas permeable. The bundles were treated with 0.1 mM [14C]NPM for 1 h, and homogenized for SDS-PAGE. 43 ± 2.2% of the muscle fiber protein ran in the myosin heavy chain band, the same as for untreated fibers. An alkylating stoichiometry of 2.2 ± 0.33 moles NPM per mole myosin heavy chain was determined. Exhaustive trypsin digestion followed by two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography and reverse-phase HPLC revealed two major sites on myosin heavy chain for NPM binding. The sites contained about the same amount of linked NPM, suggesting that the reaction stoichiometry of each site under the conditions studied is approx. 1 mol NPM/mol myosin heavy chain. Comparison of the labeled tryptic peptides with NPM-reacted synthetic SH1 and SH2 tryptic peptides and analysis of the treated fiber bundles' ATPase activity suggested that the sites for NPM reaction on myosin heavy chain when it locks crossbridges in a weakly-binding state are Cys-697 (SH2) and Cys-707 (SH1)

    An Initial Effort to Count Environmental Engineers in the USA

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    This paper critiques available environmental engineering demographics and presents estimated populations for students, faculty, and practitioners in the USA. Limited environmental engineering demographics exist because most data are collected for named environmental engineering degrees and named environmental engineering departments. American Association of Engineering Societies Engineering Workforce Commission (http://www.asee.org, 2004) has the best student data with comprehensive participation, and annual reports. Estimates for 2004 graduates suggest approximately 496 bachelors, 590 masters, and 119 doctorate degrees. However, many academic programs do not offer undergraduate environmental engineering degrees. Based on civil engineering student populations, the authors suggest that 1,245 undergraduates who will practice environmental engineering received engineering degrees (regardless of title) in 2004. American Society for Engineering Education is the main source for demographics for faculty; however, only members in standalone departments are counted, and the data were first reported in 2003. 2003 estimates are just over 100; however, the authors suggest that there are approximately 1,100 environmental engineering faculty based on Association of Environmental Engineering and Science Professors membership. For environmental engineering practitioners, the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) provides a reasonable, 2003 lower end estimate (based on statistical samples) of 45,500. Based on population, the authors conclude that environmental engineering is midsized relative to other engineering disciplines. Recognized sources of demographics for engineers should be encouraged to report environmental engineering as a distinct category. Also, relevant organizations should work with EWC and ASEE to determine better estimation methods for those environmental engineering students, faculty, and resources currently aggregated with other disciplines

    Dimensional analysis using toric ideals: Primitive invariants

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    © 2014 Atherton et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.Classical dimensional analysis in its original form starts by expressing the units for derived quantities, such as force, in terms of power products of basic units M, L, T etc. This suggests the use of toric ideal theory from algebraic geometry. Within this the Graver basis provides a unique primitive basis in a well-defined sense, which typically has more terms than the standard Buckingham approach. Some textbook examples are revisited and the full set of primitive invariants found. First, a worked example based on convection is introduced to recall the Buckingham method, but using computer algebra to obtain an integer K matrix from the initial integer A matrix holding the exponents for the derived quantities. The K matrix defines the dimensionless variables. But, rather than this integer linear algebra approach it is shown how, by staying with the power product representation, the full set of invariants (dimensionless groups) is obtained directly from the toric ideal defined by A. One candidate for the set of invariants is a simple basis of the toric ideal. This, although larger than the rank of K, is typically not unique. However, the alternative Graver basis is unique and defines a maximal set of invariants, which are primitive in a simple sense. In addition to the running example four examples are taken from: a windmill, convection, electrodynamics and the hydrogen atom. The method reveals some named invariants. A selection of computer algebra packages is used to show the considerable ease with which both a simple basis and a Graver basis can be found.The third author received funding from Leverhulme Trust Emeritus Fellowship (1-SST-U445) and United Kingdom EPSRC grant: MUCM EP/D049993/1

    Prenatal factors contribute to the emergence of kwoshiorkor or marasmus in severe undernutrition: evidence for the predictive adaptation model

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    Severe acute malnutrition in childhood manifests as oedematous (kwashiorkor, marasmic kwashiorkor) and non-oedematous (marasmus) syndromes with very different prognoses. Kwashiorkor differs from marasmus in the patterns of protein, amino acid and lipid metabolism when patients are acutely ill as well as after rehabilitation to ideal weight for height. Metabolic patterns among marasmic patients define them as metabolically thrifty, while kwashiorkor patients function as metabolically profligate. Such differences might underlie syndromic presentation and prognosis. However, no fundamental explanation exists for these differences in metabolism, nor clinical pictures, given similar exposures to undernutrition. We hypothesized that different developmental trajectories underlie these clinical-metabolic phenotypes: if so this would be strong evidence in support of predictive adaptation model of developmental plasticity
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