350 research outputs found

    ESSAYS ON SOCIAL NETWORKS AND NON-COGNITIVE SKILLS

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    La tesi propone evidenze empiriche e teoriche sull‚Äôimportanza delle abilit√† cosiddette non cognitive come elemento fondamentale del capitale umano individuale. In particolare, ci si propone di discutere se, e in che portata, queste capacit√† relazionali incidano sulle performance lavorative e sulle decisioni concernenti la salute. La tesi propone le reti sociali, o ‚Äúsocial networks‚ÄĚ, come possibile misurazione di queste capacit√† interpersonali. Il primo capitolo presenta una dettagliata rassegna della letteratura sulle abilit√† non cognitive, e sui loro effetti su salari e stato di salute, e discute l‚Äôappropriatezza dell‚Äôutilizzo delle variabili di ‚Äúsocial networks‚ÄĚ come misura per tali abilit√†. Il secondo capitolo stima a livello empirico l‚Äôimpatto delle capacit√† relazionali sui salari. Per una completezza di metodologia e per verificare la robustezza dei risultati, le stime vengono effettuate con diverse metodologie econometriche. Il terzo capitolo analizza gli effetti di queste abilit√† sociali sul consumo di sigarette, e discute la loro importanza rispetto ad altri fattori rilevanti, come tasse e comportamenti dei genitori. Il capitolo applica diversi stimatori, lineari e non, ed esamina le differenze, in termini di grandezza e significativit√† statistica, nei risultati ottenuti.This thesis provides further evidence on the importance of including non-cognitive and social skills as a component of individual human capital. In particular, it aims to assess whether interpersonal skills, measured through social network metrics, influence labour market and health attainment. The first chapter reviews the literature on non-cognitive skills and their impact on various outcomes, and discusses the use of social network metrics as measure of interpersonal skills. The second chapter empirically estimates the impact of these social skills on earnings. The effect is estimated comparing alternative empirical strategies to model social interactions, to fully examine the robustness and the meaning of the results obtained. The third chapter examines the effect of these skills on individual smoking behaviour over the young adulthood life. In particular, it examines the role of popularity and social skills on smoking decision, and compares the relative importance of these skills to other factors, such as cigarette taxes, and parents‚Äô smoking behaviour. It also analysed the extent to which using non-linear estimators affects the significance and the magnitude of the effects of these factors

    Rhodolith Beds Heterogeneity along the Apulian Continental Shelf (Mediterranean Sea)

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    Rhodolith beds represent a key habitat worldwide, from tropical to polar ecosystems. Despite this habitat is considered a hotspot of biodiversity, providing a suite of ecosystem goods and services, still scarce quantitative information is available thus far about rhodolith beds occurrence and ecological role, especially in the Mediterranean Sea. This study reports the composition and patterns of distribution of rhodolith assemblages found in four study areas along ca. 860 km of coast in the Central Mediterranean Sea. These rhodolith beds were studied for the first time and significant differences at all spatial scales have been highlighted, documenting the high variability of this habitat. Rhodolith species composition, morphology and distribution have been discussed considering the potential role of environmental factors in driving these patterns. The need for improving their protection is discussed to complement present conservation and management initiatives, particularly in the frame of the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive

    Reading the crisis: legal, philosophical and literary perspectives

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    Almost a decade has passed since the outbreak of the economic crisis; from its original nucleus, its effects have quickly affected the social and geopolitical fields. Such wide impact and its complex implications make the crisis an object susceptible of multiple readings. The particular aim of the studies collected in this volume is to explore the impact of the crisis on law, culture and society, in order to test the depth of the problem, by comparing the analytical perspectives obtainable from legal and human sciences. The book focuses on three main issues: the crisis as a social object, in order to consider the crisis in terms of its attributing force; the problem of democracy, which is becoming an increasingly central question now, as the changes imposed by the crisis have begun to settle down; the interdisciplinary challenge that, in time of crisis, questions paradigms of knowledge, competences and methods, in order to enable an heuristic dialogue between human, social and legal sciences.Introduction / Massimo Meccarelli (pp. 9-12). -- The Crisis as a Social Object : -- Narrating the Crisis: Fictions of Finance in Contemporary British Novels / Silvana Colella (pp. 15-37). -- Social Rights in Crisis: Any Role for the Court of Justice of the EU? / Francesco Costamagna (pp. 39-64). -- Ripensare la nazione ottocentesca. Vecchi e nuovi paradigmi tra storia, diritto e globalit√† / Eliana Augusti (pp. 65-97). -- Ma cos'√® questa crisi? / Carla Canullo (pp. 99-113). -- The Problem of Democracy : -- Defending Collective Sociality: The Oresteia at Shakespeare's Globe / Louise Owen (pp. 117-131). -- Representation of the Crisis vs Representative Democracy in Italy / Roberta Calvano (pp. 133-148). -- The Unbearable Lightness of the Freedom of Movement: An Analysis of the Relationship Between Brexit and Inmigration / Lucia Barbone, Erik Longo (pp.149-174). -- Repr√©sentation, perception de la crise et modification de la ¬ęs√©curit√© sociale¬Ľ. Entre pr√©diction et anticipation, que signifie agir das un monde incertain? / Jean-Philipe Pierron (pp. 175-188). -- The Interdisciplinary Challenge : -- Intercultural Categories of Thought in Times of Crisis: The Challenge of Inter/Multi-discipinary Research / Flavia Stara (pp. 191-198). -- An Interdisciplinary Approach to International Law? Some Cursory Remarks / Paolo Palchetti (pp. 199-208). -- Rights in Times of Crisis: An Interdisciplinary Issue for Legal Studies / Massimo Meccarelli (pp. 209-219). -- Contributors (pp. 221-224)

    Concurrent Assessment of Phthalates/HEXAMOLL¬ģ DINCH Exposure and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Performance in Three European Cohorts of the HBM4EU Aligned Studies

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    Information about the effects of phthalates and non-phthalate substitute cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid diisononyl ester (HEXAMOLL¬ģ DINCH) on children's neurodevelopment is limited. The aim of the present research is to evaluate the association between phthalate/HEXAMOLL¬ģ DINCH exposure and child neurodevelopment in three European cohorts involved in HBM4EU Aligned Studies. Participating subjects were school-aged children belonging to the Northern Adriatic cohort II (NAC-II), Italy, Odense Child Cohort (OCC), Denmark, and PCB cohort, Slovakia. In each cohort, children's neurodevelopment was assessed through the Full-Scale Intelligence Quotient score (FSIQ) of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale of Children test using three different editions. The children's urine samples, collected for one point in time concurrently with the neurodevelopmental evaluation, were analyzed for several phthalates/HEXAMOLL¬ģ DINCH biomarkers. The relation between phthalates/HEXAMOLL¬ģ DINCH and FSIQ was explored by applying separate multiple linear regressions in each cohort. The means and standard deviations of FSIQ were 109 ¬Ī 11 (NAC-II), 98 ¬Ī 12 (OCC), and 81 ¬Ī 15 (PCB cohort). In NAC-II, direct associations between FSIQ and DEHP's biomarkers were found: 5OH-MEHP+5oxo-MEHP (ő≤ = 2.56; 95% CI 0.58-4.55; N = 270), 5OH-MEHP+5cx-MEPP (ő≤ = 2.48; 95% CI 0.47-4.49; N = 270) and 5OH-MEHP (ő≤ = 2.58; 95% CI 0.65-4.51; N = 270). On the contrary, in the OCC the relation between DEHP's biomarkers and FSIQ tended to be inverse but imprecise (p-value ‚Č• 0.10). No associations were found in the PCB cohort. FSIQ was not associated with HEXAMOLL¬ģ DINCH in any cohort. In conclusion, these results do not provide evidence of an association between concurrent phthalate/DINCHHEXAMOLLR DINCH exposure and IQ in children.This work received external funding from the European Union‚Äôs Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under grant agreement No. 733032 [‚ÄúEuropean Human Biomonitoring Initiative‚ÄĚ (HBM4EU)] and received co-funding from the author‚Äôs organizations. NAC-II: This research was funded by: the European Union through its Sixth Framework Program for RTD (contract ‚ÄúPHIME‚ÄĚ No. FOOD-CT-2006-016253); the Institute for Maternal and Child Health IRCCS ‚ÄúBurlo Garofolo‚ÄĚ, Trieste, Italy (RC 12/12 funded by Ministry of Health‚ÄĒItaly); CROME LIFE Project ‚ÄúCross-Mediterranean Environment and Health Network‚ÄĚ (LIFE12 ENV/GR/001040). OCC: The cohort was funded by the Odense University Hospital, Denmark; the Region of Southern Denmark, The Municipality of Odense, Denmark; The University of Southern Denmark; the Mental Health Service of the Region of Southern Denmark; Odense Patient data Exploratory Network (OPEN), Den mark; The Danish Center for Hormone Disrupting Chemicals (MST-611-00012); The Danish Research Council (4004-00352B_FSS); Novo Nordisk Foundation, Denmark (grant no. NNF19OC0058266 and NNF17OC0029404); Sygeforsikring Danmark (journalnr. 2021-0173); The Collaborative foundation between Odense University Hospital and Rigshospitalet, Helsefonden, Beckettfonden, the Danish Mental Health Fund, Health Insurance Denmark. The LS-MS/MS equipment was financially supported by the Velux Foundation. PCB: PCB cohort was funded by the Slovak Research and Development Agency, project no. APVV-0571-12 and the Ministry of Health of the Slovak Republic, project no. 2014/47-SZU-11. The APC was funded by the European Union‚Äôs Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under grant agreement No. 733032.S

    Harmonized human biomonitoring in European children, teenagers and adults: EU-wide exposure data of 11 chemical substance groups from the HBM4EU Aligned Studies (2014‚Äď2021)

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    HBM4EU is co-financed under Horizon 2020 (grant agreement No 733032).As one of the core elements of the European Human Biomonitoring Initiative (HBM4EU) a human biomonitoring (HBM) survey was conducted in 23 countries to generate EU-wide comparable HBM data. This survey has built on existing HBM capacity in Europe by aligning national or regional HBM studies, referred to as the HBM4EU Aligned Studies. The HBM4EU Aligned Studies included a total of 10,795 participants from three age groups: (i) 3,576 children aged 6-12 years, (ii) 3,117 teenagers aged 12-18 years, and (iii) 4,102 young adults aged 20-39 years. The participants were recruited between 2014 and 2021 in 11-12 countries per age group, geographically distributed across Europe. Depending on the age group, internal exposure to phthalates and the substitute DINCH, halogenated and organophosphorus flame retardants, per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), cadmium, bisphenols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), arsenic species, acrylamide, mycotoxins (deoxynivalenol (total DON)), benzophenones and selected pesticides was assessed by measuring substance specific biomarkers subjected to stringent quality control programs for chemical analysis. For substance groups analyzed in different age groups higher average exposure levels were observed in the youngest age group, i.e., phthalates/DINCH in children versus teenagers, acrylamide and pesticides in children versus adults, and benzophenones in teenagers versus adults. Many biomarkers in teenagers and adults varied significantly according to educational attainment, with higher exposure levels of bisphenols, phthalates, benzophenones, PAHs, and acrylamide in participants (from households) with lower educational attainment, while teenagers from households with higher educational attainment have higher exposure levels for PFASs and arsenic. In children, a social gradient was only observed for the non-specific pyrethroid metabolite 3-PBA and di-isodecyl phthalate (DiDP), with higher levels in children from households with higher educational attainment. Geographical variations were seen for all exposure biomarkers. For 15 biomarkers, the available health-based HBM guidance values were exceeded with the highest exceedance rates for toxicologically relevant arsenic in teenagers (40%), 3-PBA in children (36%), and between 11 and 14% for total DON, ő£ (PFOA + PFNA + PFHxS + PFOS), bisphenol S and cadmium. The infrastructure and harmonized approach succeeded in obtaining comparable European-wide internal exposure data for a prioritized set of 11 chemical groups. These data serve as a reference for comparison at the global level, provide a baseline to compare the efficacy of the European Commission's chemical strategy for sustainability, and will give leverage to national policymakers for the implementation of targeted measures.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Differential cross section measurements for the production of a W boson in association with jets in proton‚Äďproton collisions at ‚ąös = 7 TeV

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    Measurements are reported of differential cross sections for the production of a W boson, which decays into a muon and a neutrino, in association with jets, as a function of several variables, including the transverse momenta (pT) and pseudorapidities of the four leading jets, the scalar sum of jet transverse momenta (HT), and the difference in azimuthal angle between the directions of each jet and the muon. The data sample of pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV was collected with the CMS detector at the LHC and corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 5.0 fb[superscript ‚ąí1]. The measured cross sections are compared to predictions from Monte Carlo generators, MadGraph + pythia and sherpa, and to next-to-leading-order calculations from BlackHat + sherpa. The differential cross sections are found to be in agreement with the predictions, apart from the pT distributions of the leading jets at high pT values, the distributions of the HT at high-HT and low jet multiplicity, and the distribution of the difference in azimuthal angle between the leading jet and the muon at low values.United States. Dept. of EnergyNational Science Foundation (U.S.)Alfred P. Sloan Foundatio

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