271 research outputs found

    Squaring the magic squares of order 4

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    In this paper, we present the problem of counting magic squares and we focus on the case of multiplicative magic squares of order 4. We give the exact number of normal multiplicative magic squares of order 4 with an original and complete proof, pointing out the role of the action of the symmetric group. Moreover, we provide a new representation for magic squares of order 4. Such representation allows the construction of magic squares in a very simple way, using essentially only five particular 4X4 matrices

    Identities Involving Zeros of Ramanujan and Shanks Cubic Polynomials

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    In this paper we highlight the connection between Ramanujan cubic polynomials (RCPs) and a class of polynomials, the Shanks cubic polynomials (SCPs), which generate cyclic cubic fields. In this way we provide a new characterization for RCPs and we express the zeros of any RCP in explicit form, using trigonometric functions. Moreover, we observe that a cyclic transform of period three permutes these zeros. As a consequence of these results we provide many new and beautiful identities. Finally we connect RCPs to Gaussian periods, finding a new identity, and we study some integer sequences related to SCPs

    Linear divisibility sequences and Salem numbers

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    We study linear divisibility sequences of order 4, providing a characterization by means of their characteristic polynomials and finding their factorization as a product of linear divisibility sequences of order 2. Moreover, we show a new interesting connection between linear divisibility sequences and Salem numbers. Specifically, we generate linear divisibility sequences of order 4 by means of Salem numbers modulo 1

    Periodic representations and rational approximations of square roots

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    In this paper the properties of R\'edei rational functions are used to derive rational approximations for square roots and both Newton and Pad\'e approximations are given as particular cases. As a consequence, such approximations can be derived directly by power matrices. Moreover, R\'edei rational functions are introduced as convergents of particular periodic continued fractions and are applied for approximating square roots in the field of p-adic numbers and to study periodic representations. Using the results over the real numbers, we show how to construct periodic continued fractions and approximations of square roots which are simultaneously valid in the real and in the p-adic field

    Polynomial sequences on quadratic curves

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    In this paper we generalize the study of Matiyasevich on integer points over conics, introducing the more general concept of radical points. With this generalization we are able to solve in positive integers some Diophantine equations, relating these solutions by means of particular linear recurrence sequences. We point out interesting relationships between these sequences and known sequences in OEIS. We finally show connections between these sequences and Chebyshev and Morgan-Voyce polynomials, finding new identities

    The Biharmonic mean

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    We briefly describe some well-known means and their properties, focusing on the relationship with integer sequences. In particular, the harmonic numbers, deriving from the harmonic mean, motivate the definition of a new kind of mean that we call the biharmonic mean. The biharmonic mean allows to introduce the biharmonic numbers, providing a new characterization for primes. Moreover, we highlight some interesting divisibility properties and we characterize the semi--prime biharmonic numbers showing their relationship with linear recurrent sequences that solve certain Diophantine equations
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