269 research outputs found

    Self-Organized Criticality and Synchronization in the Forest-Fire Model

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    Depending on the rule for tree growth, the forest-fire model shows either self-organized criticality with rule-dependent exponents, or synchronization, or an intermediate behavior. This is shown analytically for the one-dimensional system, but holds evidently also in higher dimensions.Comment: Latex 4 pages, 4 figure

    Self--organized criticality due to a separation of energy scales

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    Certain systems with slow driving and avalanche-like dissipation events are naturally close to a critical point when the ratio of two energy scales is large. The first energy scale is the threshold above which an avalanche is triggered, the second scale is the threshold above which a site is affected by an avalanche. I present results of computer simulations, and a mean-field theory.Comment: This paper is very different from the old version which had an error in the simulation code. Please destroy the old version if you have i

    Extinction events and species lifetimes in a simple ecological model

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    A model for large-scale evolution recently introduced by Amaral and Meyer is studied analytically and numerically. Species are located at different trophic levels and become extinct if their prey becomes extinct. It is proved that this model is self-organized critical in the thermodynamic limit, with an exponent 2 characterizing the size distribution of extinction events. The lifetime distribution of species, cutoffs due to finite-size effects, and other quantities are evaluated. The relevance of this model to biological evolution is critically assessed.Comment: 4 pages RevTex, including 3 postscript figure

    On the relation between the second law of thermodynamics and classical and quantum mechanics

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    In textbooks on statistical mechanics, one finds often arguments based on classical mechanics, phase space and ergodicity in order to justify the second law of thermodynamics. However, the basic equations of motion of classical mechanics are deterministic and reversible, while the second law of thermodynamics is irreversible and not deterministic, because it states that a system forgets its past when approaching equilibrium. I argue that all "derivations" of the second law of thermodynamics from classical mechanics include additional assumptions that are not part of classical mechanics. The same holds for Boltzmann's H-theorem. Furthermore, I argue that the coarse-graining of phase-space that is used when deriving the second law cannot be viewed as an expression of our ignorance of the details of the microscopic state of the system, but reflects the fact that the state of a system is fully specified by using only a finite number of bits, as implied by the concept of entropy, which is related to the number of different microstates that a closed system can have. While quantum mechanics, as described by the Schroedinger equation, puts this latter statement on a firm ground, it cannot explain the irreversibility and stochasticity inherent in the second law.Comment: Invited talk given on the 2012 "March meeting" of the German Physical Society To appear in: B. Falkenburg and M. Morrison (eds.), Why more is different (Springer Verlag, 2014

    Random Boolean Networks

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    This review explains in a self-contained way the properties of random Boolean networks and their attractors, with a special focus on critical networks. Using small example networks, analytical calculations, phenomenological arguments, and problems to solve, the basic concepts are introduced and important results concerning phase diagrams, numbers of relevant nodes and attractor properties are derived.Comment: This is a review on Random Boolean Networks. The new version now includes a proper title page. The main body is unchange

    Ten reasons why a thermalized system cannot be described by a many-particle wave function

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    It is widely believed that the underlying reality behind statistical mechanics is a deterministic and unitary time evolution of a many-particle wave function, even though this is in conflict with the irreversible, stochastic nature of statistical mechanics. The usual attempts to resolve this conflict for instance by appealing to decoherence or eigenstate thermalization are riddled with problems. This paper considers theoretical physics of thermalized systems as it is done in practise and shows that all approaches to thermalized systems presuppose in some form limits to linear superposition and deterministic time evolution. These considerations include, among others, the classical limit, extensivity, the concepts of entropy and equilibrium, and symmetry breaking in phase transitions and quantum measurement. As a conclusion, the paper argues that the irreversibility and stochasticity of statistical mechanics should be taken as a true property of nature. It follows that a gas of a macroscopic number NN of atoms in thermal equilibrium is best represented by a collection of NN wave packets of a size of the order of the thermal de Broglie wave length, which behave quantum mechanically below this scale but classically sufficiently far beyond this scale. In particular, these wave packets must localize again after scattering events, which requires stochasticity and indicates a connection to the measurement process.Comment: Drastically rewritten version, with more explanations, with three new reasons added and three old ones merged with other parts of the tex

    Critical Boolean networks with scale-free in-degree distribution

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    We investigate analytically and numerically the dynamical properties of critical Boolean networks with power-law in-degree distributions. When the exponent of the in-degree distribution is larger than 3, we obtain results equivalent to those obtained for networks with fixed in-degree, e.g., the number of the non-frozen nodes scales as N2/3N^{2/3} with the system size NN. When the exponent of the distribution is between 2 and 3, the number of the non-frozen nodes increases as NxN^x, with xx being between 0 and 2/3 and depending on the exponent and on the cutoff of the in-degree distribution. These and ensuing results explain various findings obtained earlier by computer simulations.Comment: 5 pages, 1 graph, 1 sketch, submitte

    Winding angles for two-dimensional polymers with orientation dependent interactions

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    We study winding angles of oriented polymers with orientation-dependent interaction in two dimensions. Using exact analytical calculations, computer simulations, and phenomenological arguments, we succeed in finding the variance of the winding angle for most of the phase diagram. Our results suggest that the winding angle distribution is a universal quantity, and that the θ\theta--point is the point where the three phase boundaries between the swollen, the normal collapsed, and the spiral collapsed phase meet. The transition between the normal collapsed phase and the spiral phase is shown to be continuous.Comment: 21 pages (incl 5 figures

    Scaling laws in critical random Boolean networks with general in- and out-degree distributions

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    We evaluate analytically and numerically the size of the frozen core and various scaling laws for critical Boolean networks that have a power-law in- and/or out-degree distribution. To this purpose, we generalize an efficient method that has previously been used for conventional random Boolean networks and for networks with power-law in-degree distributions. With this generalization, we can also deal with power-law out-degree distributions. When the power-law exponent is between 2 and 3, the second moment of the distribution diverges with network size, and the scaling exponent of the nonfrozen nodes depends on the degree distribution exponent. Furthermore, the exponent depends also on the dependence of the cutoff of the degree distribution on the system size. Altogether, we obtain an impressive number of different scaling laws depending on the type of cutoff as well as on the exponents of the in- and out-degree distributions. We confirm our scaling arguments and analytical considerations by numerical investigations

    Dynamics of a single particle in a horizontally shaken box

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    We study the dynamics of a particle in a horizontally and periodically shaken box as a function of the box parameters and the coefficient of restitution. For certain parameter values, the particle becomes regularly chattered at one of the walls, thereby loosing all its kinetic energy relative to that wall. The number of container oscillations between two chattering events depends in a fractal manner on the parameters of the system. In contrast to a vertically vibrated particle, for which chattering is claimed to be the generic fate, the horizontally shaken particle can become trapped on a periodic orbit and follow the period-doubling route to chaos when the coefficient of restitution is changed. We also discuss the case of a completely elastic particle, and the influence of friction between the particle and the bottom of the container.Comment: 11 pages RevTex. Some postscript files have low resolution. We will send the high-resolution files on reques
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