58 research outputs found

    Evidence for an elevated aspartate pKa in the active site of human aromatase

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    Aromatase (CYP19A1), the enzyme that converts androgens to estrogens, is of significant mechanistic and therapeutic interest. Crystal structures and computational studies of this enzyme shed light on the critical role of Asp(309) in substrate binding and catalysis. These studies predicted an elevated pK(a) for Asp(309) and proposed that protonation of this residue was required for function. In this study, UV-visible absorption, circular dichroism, resonance Raman spectroscopy, and enzyme kinetics were used to study the impact of pH on aromatase structure and androstenedione binding. Spectroscopic studies demonstrate that androstenedione binding is pH-dependent, whereas, in contrast, the D309N mutant retains its ability to bind to androstenedione across the entire pH range studied. Neither pH nor mutation perturbed the secondary structure or heme environment. The origin of the observed pH dependence was further narrowed to the protonation equilibria of Asp(309) with a parallel set of spectroscopic studies using exemestane and anastrozole. Because exemestane interacts with Asp(309) based on its co-crystal structure with the enzyme, its binding is pH-dependent. Aromatase binding to anastrozole is pH-independent, consistent with the hypothesis that this ligand exploits a distinct set of interactions in the active site. In summary, we assign the apparent pK(a) of 8.2 observed for androstenedione binding to the side chain of Asp(309). To our knowledge, this work represents the first experimental assignment of a pK(a) value to a residue in a cytochrome P450. This value is in agreement with theoretical calculations (7.7–8.1) despite the reliance of the computational methods on the conformational snapshots provided by crystal structures

    Sex- and age-related differences in the management and outcomes of chronic heart failure: an analysis of patients from the ESC HFA EORP Heart Failure Long-Term Registry

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    Aims: This study aimed to assess age- and sex-related differences in management and 1-year risk for all-cause mortality and hospitalization in chronic heart failure (HF) patients. Methods and results: Of 16 354 patients included in the European Society of Cardiology Heart Failure Long-Term Registry, 9428 chronic HF patients were analysed [median age: 66 years; 28.5% women; mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) 37%]. Rates of use of guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT) were high (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers, beta-blockers and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists: 85.7%, 88.7% and 58.8%, respectively). Crude GDMT utilization rates were lower in women than in men (all differences: P\ua0 64 0.001), and GDMT use became lower with ageing in both sexes, at baseline and at 1-year follow-up. Sex was not an independent predictor of GDMT prescription; however, age >75 years was a significant predictor of GDMT underutilization. Rates of all-cause mortality were lower in women than in men (7.1% vs. 8.7%; P\ua0=\ua00.015), as were rates of all-cause hospitalization (21.9% vs. 27.3%; P\ua075 years. Conclusions: There was a decline in GDMT use with advanced age in both sexes. Sex was not an independent predictor of GDMT or adverse outcomes. However, age >75 years independently predicted lower GDMT use and higher all-cause mortality in patients with LVEF 6445%

    Unraveling the transcriptional regulatory networks associated to mycobacterial cell wall defective form induction by glycine and lysozyme treatment

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    It is known that a combined glycine/lysozyme treatment is able to induce in vitro the mycobacterial conversion from the bacillary to the cell wall defective forms. These forms also naturally occur in vivo as a response to various antimicrobial factors such as lysozyme released by phagocytic cells. Although they have been successfully isolated from patients with several chronic diseases, their role in pathogenesis is still unknown, mainly due to the difficulties in handling the in vivo isolated variants. Moreover, nothing is known about the transcriptional peculiarities that may exist in comparison to the vegetative phase. Hence, in this study, we simulated in vitro the induction of the mycobacterial cell wall defective state by using a glycine and lysozyme-based treatment in order to identify the gene expression profiles of both pathogenic and non-pathogenic mycobacteria. DNA-microarray results showed that in contrast to the non-pathogenic Mycobacterium smegmatis species, glycine and lysozyme treated forms of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis regulated a repertoire of genes usually expressed in vivo during adaptation and persistence within host environments. Results suggest that the cell wall defective state may represent an important stage in the life-cycle of pathogenic mycobacteria that potentially coordinates persistence

    Expression profiling of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv and Mycobacterium smegmatis in acid-nitrosative multi-stress displays defined regulatory networks

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    Several studies regarding the transcriptome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis following the exposure to various in vitro simulated phagosomal stressors, have already tried to elucidate the bacterium behavior during the intracellular infection. An in vitro acid-nitrosative multi-stress was carried out for M. tuberculosis H37Rv and Mycobacterium smegmatis MC2155 in order to analyze by DNA-microarray the gene expression changes associated respectively to pathogenic and non-pathogenic mycobacterial species. During acid-nitrosative multi-stress both mycobacteria shift their transcriptome to allow the anaerobic respiratory state and energy pathways characteristic of starvation. M. tuberculosis counteracts the combined acid-nitrosative stress more efficiently than M. smegmatis as also shown by the up-regulation of glbN and hmp genes, that are specifically directed to NO detoxification. Moreover, the down-regulation of some virulence factors involved in phthiocerol dimycocerosates synthesis strengthens the hypothesis that these major virulence determinants may be attenuated by M. tuberculosis in the presence of reactive nitrogen species. In fact, it down-regulates other genes implicated in the synthesis of membrane structural lipids but in contrast to M. smegmatis, M. tuberculosis up-regulates many genes annotated for the synthesis of peptidoglycan. Results suggest a gene regulation of M. tuberculosis which reveals a distinctive expression pattern under stressful environment
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