314 research outputs found

    Evaluating the Impact of Development Projects on Poverty: A Handbook for Practitioners

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    This best practices handbook provides project managers and policy analysts with the tools needed for evaluating project impact. The handbook presents an overview of concepts and methods, key steps of implementation, analytical techniques through a case study, and a discussion of lessons learned from a set of reviewed evaluations

    Urban poverty and transport : the case of Mumbai

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    This paper reports the results of a survey of 5,000 households in the Greater Mumbai Region conducted in the winter of 2004. The goal of the survey was to better understand the demand for transport services by the poor, the factors affecting this demand, and the inter-linkages between transport decisions and other vital decisions such as where to live and work. This paper, the first of several research outputs, describes the salient facts about travel patterns in Mumbai for both poor and non-poor households. A striking finding of the survey is the extent to which all households-especially poor households-rely on walking. Overall, 44 percent of commuters in Mumbai walk to work. The proportion of the poor who walk to work is even higher-63 percent. Walking is an even higher modal share for nonwork than for work trips. A second finding is that public transit remains an important factor in the mobility of the poor, and especially in the mobility of the middle class. Overall, rail remains the main mode to work for 23 percent of commuters, while bus remains the main mode for 16 percent of commuters. The modal shares for bus are highest for the poor in zones 1-3 (21 percent of the poor in zone 2 take the bus to work), while rail shares are highest for the poor in the suburbs (25 percent of the poor in zone 6 take rail to work). Isthe cost and lack of accessibility to transit a barrier to the mobility of the poor? Does it keep them from obtaining better housing and better jobs? This is a difficult question to answer without further analysis of the survey data. But it appears that transport is less of a barrier to the poor who live in central Mumbai (zones 1-3) than it is to the poor who live in the suburbs (zones 4-6). The poor who live in zones 1-3 (central Mumbai) live closer to the non-poor than do poor households in the suburbs. They also live closer to higher-paying jobs for unskilled workers. Workers in these households, on average, commute short distances (less than 3 kilometers), although a non-negligible fraction of them (one-third in zone 2) take public transit to work. It is true that the cost of housing for the poor is higher in central Mumbai than in the suburbs, but the quality of slum housing is at least as good in central Mumbai as in the suburbs. The poor who live in the suburbs of Mumbai, especially in zones 5 and 6, are more isolated from the rich than the poor in central Mumbai: 37 percent of the poor live in zones 5 and 6, whereas only one-fifth of higher income groups do. Wages for skilled and unskilled labor are generally lower in zones 5 and 6 than in the central city, and it appears that unemployment rates for poor males are also higher in these zones. The lower cost of slum and chawl housing in zones 5 and 6 may partly compensate for lower wages. However, a larger proportion of workers in poor households leave zones 5 and 6 to work than is true for poor workers in other zones. Commuting distances are much higher for poor workers in the suburbs than for poor workers in zones 1-3.Roads&Highways,Safety Nets and Transfers,Rural Poverty Reduction,Services&Transfers to Poor,Poverty Assessment

    Increasing the Health Outcomes of Deaf and Hard of Hearing Oklahomans Through Tobacco Awareness and Cessation Support

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    As a consequence of limited access to health information, Deaf and hard of hearing (Deaf/ hh)’ individuals may be at higher risk for health complications and tobacco-related diseases. To address this issue, Communication Service for the Deaf (CSD) of Oklahoma sought funding from the Oklahoma Tobacco Settlement Endowment Trust to implement the Deaf and Hard of Hearing Tobacco Use and Cessation Program. The five-year project began in 2006; it was the first major health education initiative in the state that focused on the Deaf community. Prevalence rates and demographic information were collected regarding tobacco use among Deaf/hh participants. In addition, tobacco education and cessation programs were provided, and the changes in participants\u27 knowledge and attitudes toward tobacco use were tracked over a three-year period. At the end of the project, in-depth interviews were conducted to gather additional information from tobacco users. This article provides prevalence and demographic information regarding Deaf/hh individuals\u27 tobacco use in Oklahoma and outcomes of educational programs

    Diabetes-Associated Hyperglycemia Causes Rapid-Onset Ocular Surface Damage

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    Purpose: The metabolic alterations due to chronic hyperglycemia are well-known to cause diabetes-associated complications. Short-term hyperglycemia has also been shown to cause many acute changes, including hemodynamic alterations and osmotic, oxidative, and inflammatory stress. The present study was designed to investigate whether diabetes-associated hyperglycemia can cause rapid-onset detrimental effects on the tear film, goblet cells, and glycocalyx and can lead to activation of an inflammatory cascade or cellular stress response in the cornea. Methods: Mouse models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes were used. Tear film volume, goblet cell number, and corneal glycocalyx area were measured on days 7, 14, and 28 after the onset of hyperglycemia. Transcriptome analysis was performed to quantify changes in 248 transcripts of genes involved in inflammatory, apoptotic, and stress response pathways. Results: Our data demonstrate that type 1 and type 2 diabetes-associated hyperglycemia caused a significant decrease in the tear film volume, goblet cell number, and corneal glycocalyx area. The decrease in tear film and goblet cell number was noted as early as 7 days after onset of hyperglycemia. The severity of ocular surface injury was significantly more in type 1 compared to type 2 diabetes. Diabetes mellitus also caused an increase in transcripts of genes involved in the inflammatory, apoptotic, and cellular stress response pathways. Conclusions: The results of the present study demonstrate that diabetes-associated hyperglycemia causes rapid-onset damage to the ocular surface. Thus, short-term hyperglycemia in patients with diabetes mellitus may also play an important role in causing ocular surface injury and dry eye

    Sealless Pumps

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    Discussion Grou

    Sealless Pumps

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    Discussion Grou

    Savouring our mistakes:Learning from the FitQuest project

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    Dajoz Roger. Un nouveau Coléoptère Aphodiidae : Termitodius boliviensis. In: Bulletin de la Société entomologique de France, volume 76 (5-6), Mai-juin 1971. pp. 138-140
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