8,759 research outputs found

    Using pedometers as motivational tools : are goals set in steps more effective than goals set in minutes for increasing walking?

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    Background Pedometers are popular devices that measure walking steps. There has been a recent surge in promoting the pedometer as a motivational tool to increase walking. However, little empirical evidence exists to support this suggestion. This study examined the effectiveness of a pedometer as a motivational tool to increase walking. 50 participants (7 men and 43 women, mean age (SD) 40.16 (8.81) years, range 25-61 years) were randomly assigned to either an intervention group who followed a four-week walking programme with goals set in steps (using an open pedometer for feedback) or a comparison group who followed an equivalent four-week walking programme with goals set in minutes. Participants had step-counts recorded at baseline, weeks 1, 2, 3, 4, and at weeks 16 and 52 for follow-up. Both groups significantly increased step-counts from baseline to week 4 with no significant difference between groups. However, a significantly greater number of participants in the intervention group (77%) compared with the comparison group (54%) achieved their week 4 goals (p=0.03). There was no significant change in step-counts from week 4 to week 16. There was a significant decrease from week 16 to week 52. In the short term, both goals set in minutes and goals set in steps using a pedometer may be effective at promoting walking. In the long term, additional support may be required to sustain increases in walking

    Responsiveness of the Functional Mobility Scale for children with cerebral palsy

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    Performance of AAV8 vectors expressing human factor IX from a hepatic-selective promoter following intravenous injection into rats

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    Background: Vectors based on adeno-associated virus-8 (AAV8) have shown efficiency and efficacy for liver-directed gene therapy protocols following intravascular injection, particularly in relation to haemophilia gene therapy. AAV8 has also been proposed for gene therapy targeted at skeletal and cardiac muscle, again via intravascular injection. It is important to assess vector targeting at the level of virion accumulation and transgene expression in multiple species to ascertain potential issues relating to species variation in infectivity profiles. Methods: We used AAV8 vectors expressing human factor IX (FIX) from the liver-specific LP-1 promoter and administered this virus via the intravascular route of injection into 12 week old Wistar Kyoto rats. We assessed FIX levels in serum by ELISA and transgene expression at sacrifice by immunohistochemistry using anti-FIX antibodies. Vector DNA levels in organs we determined by real time PCR. Results: Administration of 1 × 1011 or 5 × 1011 scAAV8-LP1-hFIX vector particles/rat resulted in efficient production of physiological hFIX levels, respectively in blood assessed 4 weeks post-injection. This was maintained for the 4 month duration of the study. At 4 months we observed liver persistence of vector with minimal non-hepatic distribution. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that AAV8 is a robust vector for delivering therapeutic genes into rat liver following intravascular injection

    Recruiting hard-to-reach populations to physical activity studies : evidence and experiences

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    Most researchers who are conducting research with a public health focus face difficulties in recruiting the segments of the population that they really want to reach. This symposium presented evidence and experiences on recruiting participants to physical activity research, including both epidemiological and intervention based studies. Results from a systematic review of recruitment strategies suggested that we know little about how best to recruit and highlighted the need for researchers to report this in more detail, including metrics of reach into the target population such as number, proportion, and representativeness of participants. Specific strategies used to optimise responses to a population-based mail survey were presented such as study promotion, survey design, multiple mailings, and personal engagement. Finally, using place based recruiting via schools or places of worship to target ethnic minority youth were discussed. Overall the symposium presenters suggested that we need to learn more about how best to recruit participants, in particular those typically under-represented, and that researchers need to apportion a similar amount of planning effort to their recruitment strategies as they do the their research design. Finally we made a plea for researchers to report their recruitment processes in detail

    Social patterning of alcohol consumption among mothers with infants in the UK

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    Background We examined patterns of alcohol use among mothers with infants in the UK focusing on (i) common (‘majority’) patterns of alcohol use (frequency and quantity) and (ii) associated social factors. Methods We analysed data from 15,510 mothers who took part in waves 1 and 2 of the Millennium Cohort Study (MCS) in 2000/1. 9 months after birth, mothers reported their frequency and quantity of alcohol use, along with information on social circumstances. Logistic regression, carried out in 2011, helped identify the social factors associated with majority patterns of alcohol use. Results Majority patterns of alcohol use were: infrequent drinking (never/<1/week), infrequent light drinking (1 unit/day, <1/week), and frequent light drinking (<14 units/week). In mutually adjusted models, infrequent drinking was associated with childhood, educational, and income disadvantage, and younger age at first birth. Infrequent light drinking was associated with educational and income disadvantage, economic inactivity, and marriage. Frequent light drinking was associated with marriage and fewer children in the household. Conclusions Among mothers in the UK, the majority drank infrequent small quantities. Positive social gradients were evident for frequency of alcohol use among socially advantaged mothers

    Guide to Creative Commons for humanities and social science monograph authors

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    A booklet for authors in the humanities and social sciences specifically designed to help them understand the Creative Commons licenses
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