48,778 research outputs found

    An Application for Research: the Large Hadron Collider

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    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) machine at CERN was designed and built primarily to find or exclude the existence of the Higgs boson, for which a large amount of data is needed by the LHC experiments. This requires operation at high luminosity, which in turn requires running with thousands of high-intensity proton bunches in the machine. After quantifying the data required by the experiments and elucidating the LHC parameters needed to achieve this, this paper explains how the LHC beams are fabricated from the pulse(s) coming from the CERN Duoplasmatron source.Comment: 10 pages, contribution to the CAS-CERN Accelerator School: Ion Sources, Senec, Slovakia, 29 May - 8 June 2012, edited by R. Bailey, CERN-2013-00

    Measuring the Lifetime of Trapped Sleptons Using the General Purpose LHC Detectors

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    In supergravity where the gravitino is the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP), the next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle (NLSP) decays to the gravitino with a naturally long lifetime (10^4 - 10^8). However, cosmological constraints favour charged sleptons with lifetimes below a year as the natural NLSP candidate. For this scenario we report a method to accurately determine the slepton lifetime and SUSY cross-section from observation of the decays of sleptons trapped in the material comprising the main detector (ATLAS, CMS). A measurement of the lifetime to 5% is possible after 3 years at nominal luminosity and running conditions. This method is sensitive to the cosmologically preferred stau lifetime of ~37 days and does not require the use of ancillary trapping volumes

    Electromagnetic wave energy converter

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    Electromagnetic wave energy is converted into electric power with an array of mutually insulated electromagnetic wave absorber elements each responsive to an electric field component of the wave as it impinges thereon. Each element includes a portion tapered in the direction of wave propagation to provide a relatively wideband response spectrum. Each element includes an output for deriving a voltage replica of the electric field variations intercepted by it. Adjacent elements are positioned relative to each other so that an electric field subsists between adjacent elements in response to the impinging wave. The electric field results in a voltage difference between adjacent elements that is fed to a rectifier to derive dc output power

    Sentential Word Order and the Syntax of Question Particles

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    Polar question particles in languages with VO word order pose a problem for the otherwise robust Final-Over-Final Constraint, which rules out a head-final phrase immediately dominating a head-initial phrase (Holmberg 2000). This paper offers a description of these particles and the constraint, and offers data supporting the hypothesis that these final particles are different from their initial counterparts in a fundamental way

    Implementation of Response to Intervention for English Language Learners

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    Response to Intervention is utilized to provide parents, teachers, and specialists with the data needed to implement and measure the effectiveness of evidence-based instructional and behavioral strategies matched to student needs. English Language Learners are in particular need of research-based instruction paired with progress monitoring as they seek to meet state standards in a new language. Parents, students, and school personnel all benefit from seeing Christ-like consideration for foreigners modeled through Response to Intervention

    Null Subjects in Northeast English

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    This paper presents data and analysis relating to null subjects in spoken colloquial English. While English is not a „pro-drop? language (i.e. subjects must usually be overt), a corpus of speech collected on Tyneside and Wearside in 2007 shows that null subjects are permitted in finite clauses in certain contexts. This paper analyses these examples and follow-up questionnaires, and compares the data with the other types of null subject described in the literature (pro-drop, topic-drop, early null subjects, aphasics? null subjects and „diary-drop?), ultimately concluding that the colloquial English phenomenon is most closely related to diary- drop

    Status and projections of the NAS program

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    NASA's Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation (NAS) Program has completed development of the initial operating configuration of the NAS Processing System Network (NPSN). This is the first milestone in the continuing and pathfinding effort to provide state-of-the-art supercomputing for aeronautics research and development. The NPSN, available to a nation-wide community of remote users, provides a uniform UNIX environment over a network of host computers ranging from the Cray-2 supercomputer to advanced scientific workstations. This system, coupled with a vendor-independent base of common user interface and network software, presents a new paradigm for supercomputing environments. Background leading to the NAS program, its programmatic goals and strategies, technical goals and objectives, and the development activities leading to the current NPSN configuration are presented. Program status, near-term plans, and plans for the next major milestone, the extended operating configuration, are also discussed

    Optimality of neighbor-balanced designs for total effects

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    The purpose of this paper is to study optimality of circular neighbor-balanced block designs when neighbor effects are present in the model. In the literature many optimality results are established for direct effects and neighbor effects separately, but few for total effects, that is, the sum of direct effect of treatment and relevant neighbor effects. We show that circular neighbor-balanced designs are universally optimal for total effects among designs with no self neighbor. Then we give efficiency factors of these designs, and show some situations where a design with self neighbors is preferable to a neighbor-balanced design.Comment: Published by the Institute of Mathematical Statistics (http://www.imstat.org) in the Annals of Statistics (http://www.imstat.org/aos/) at http://dx.doi.org/10.1214/00905360400000048
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