298 research outputs found

    An assessment of oxygen availability, iron build-up and the relative significance of free and attached bacteria, as factors affecting bio-oxidation of refractory gold-bearing sulphides at high solids concentrations

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    Bibliography: pages 121-132.Bacterial oxidation is currently finding significant application for the oxidative pretreatment of refractory gold-bearing sulphides. Plants processing sulphide concentrates have commonly been operated at solids concentrations of between 18 and 20 per cent (m/v) (Le 180 and 200 kg.m-3). At higher concentrations, a decline in the bio-oxidation rate has been observed. Other metallurgical processes, such as chemical leaching and cyanidation, are performed at higher solids concentrations of between 40 and 50 per cent (400 and 500 kg.m-3), providing an incentive to increase the solids concentration at which bio-oxidation plants are operated. A review of literature indicated the following factors to be potential causes of reduced bio-oxidation rates at high solids concentrations: oxygen and carbon dioxide mass transfer; a low bacteria-to-solids ratio; mechanical damage of the bacte.ria; and the build-up of inhibitory oxidation products. Interaction of these factors in the completely-mixed reactors that are commonly used for biooxidation, has confounded the interpretation of the effects of individual factors. Analysis of literature data revealed a link between the sulphide grade of a particular material and the highest solids concentration at which the bacterial oxidation rate was maximal. The oxygen demand is directly proportional to the sulphide concentration in the reactor. Correlations were used to predict the oxygen transfer potential in the experimental reactors and it was found that as long as the oxygen transfer potential exceeded the oxygen demand, the biooxidation rate was proportional to the solids concentration for a specific material. Wh~n the oxygen demand equalled or exceeded the oxygen transfer potential, then the bacterial oxidation rate was limited by oxygen availability. The sulphide grade is characteristic of a particular ore or concentrate and from the data analysis oxygen availabiiity appeared to be the underlying reason why low grade materials could be oxidised at the maximum specific bio-oxidation rate at far higher solids concentrations than high-grade f!laterials. Abstract ii The experiments performed in this study were designed to further investigate the apparent relationship, identified by analysis of literature data, between sulphide grade and the solids concentration at which the bacterial oxidation rate was maximal. The effect of both solids concentration and sulphide grade on the biooxidation rate was investigated and related to the oxygen availability in the reactor

    An exploratory investigation of crossflow microfiltration for solid/liquid separation in biological wastewater treatment

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    This thesis contains the results and discussion of an exploratory investigation into the application of Crossflow Microfiltration (CFMF) for solid/liquid separation in biological wastewater treatment systems. The principal objective of the study was to assess the influence of CFMF on the performance of identified biological wastewater treatment systems. It was not the objective to optimise filtration performance. A literature review indicated that the crossflow mode of filtration has been widely accepted as a unit operation in the fermentation industry. The filtration mode is now being applied not only for solid/liquid separation but also for separations on a molecular and ionic level. Very few applications of crossflow filtration in the context of biological wastewater treatment solid/liquid separation are reported in the literature. The reasons for this limited experience would appear to be the scale involved and the perceived high costs; separations in the fermentation industry are usually conducted at relatively small scale (laboratory or pilot-scale) and involve high-value products, justifying high capital and operating costs. Also, the high level of separation performance attained is perhaps not necessary for many wastewater treatment applications. No doubt these reservations are largely valid. However, these arguments cannot be applied equally to all filtration methods and wastewater treatment schemes. For example, the costs of microfiltration are substantially less than ultrafiltration or reverse osmosis, and in certain cases effluents with extremely low suspended solids contents may be required. In the light of these observations an investigation of CFMF for solid/liquid separation in biological wastewater treatment systems appears justified. Two biological treatment systems were selected for study: the Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Bed (UASB) reactor and the Activated Sludge system. The envisaged benefits accruing from the application of CFMF were different in each case

    First Light LBT AO Images of HR 8799 bcde at 1.65 and 3.3 Microns: New Discrepancies between Young Planets and Old Brown Dwarfs

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    As the only directly imaged multiple planet system, HR 8799 provides a unique opportunity to study the physical properties of several planets in parallel. In this paper, we image all four of the HR 8799 planets at H-band and 3.3 microns with the new LBT adaptive optics system, PISCES, and LBTI/LMIRCam. Our images offer an unprecedented view of the system, allowing us to obtain H and 3.3$ micron photometry of the innermost planet (for the first time) and put strong upper-limits on the presence of a hypothetical fifth companion. We find that all four planets are unexpectedly bright at 3.3 microns compared to the equilibrium chemistry models used for field brown dwarfs, which predict that planets should be faint at 3.3 microns due to CH4 opacity. We attempt to model the planets with thick-cloudy, non-equilibrium chemistry atmospheres, but find that removing CH4 to fit the 3.3 micron photometry increases the predicted L' (3.8 microns) flux enough that it is inconsistent with observations. In an effort to fit the SED of the HR 8799 planets, we construct mixtures of cloudy atmospheres, which are intended to represent planets covered by clouds of varying opacity. In this scenario, regions with low opacity look hot and bright, while regions with high opacity look faint, similar to the patchy cloud structures on Jupiter and L/T transition brown-dwarfs. Our mixed cloud models reproduce all of the available data, but self-consistent models are still necessary to demonstrate their viability.Comment: Accepted to Ap

    GASKAP -- The Galactic ASKAP Survey

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    A survey of the Milky Way disk and the Magellanic System at the wavelengths of the 21-cm atomic hydrogen (HI) line and three 18-cm lines of the OH molecule will be carried out with the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope. The survey will study the distribution of HI emission and absorption with unprecedented angular and velocity resolution, as well as molecular line thermal emission, absorption, and maser lines. The area to be covered includes the Galactic plane (|b|< 10deg) at all declinations south of delta = +40deg, spanning longitudes 167deg through 360deg to 79deg at b=0deg, plus the entire area of the Magellanic Stream and Clouds, a total of 13,020 square degrees. The brightness temperature sensitivity will be very good, typically sigma_T ~ 1 K at resolution 30arcsec and 1 km/s. The survey has a wide spectrum of scientific goals, from studies of galaxy evolution to star formation, with particular contributions to understanding stellar wind kinematics, the thermal phases of the interstellar medium, the interaction between gas in the disk and halo, and the dynamical and thermal states of gas at various positions along the Magellanic Stream.Comment: 45 pages, 8 figures, Pub. Astron. Soc. Australia (in press

    LSST Science Book, Version 2.0

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    A survey that can cover the sky in optical bands over wide fields to faint magnitudes with a fast cadence will enable many of the exciting science opportunities of the next decade. The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will have an effective aperture of 6.7 meters and an imaging camera with field of view of 9.6 deg^2, and will be devoted to a ten-year imaging survey over 20,000 deg^2 south of +15 deg. Each pointing will be imaged 2000 times with fifteen second exposures in six broad bands from 0.35 to 1.1 microns, to a total point-source depth of r~27.5. The LSST Science Book describes the basic parameters of the LSST hardware, software, and observing plans. The book discusses educational and outreach opportunities, then goes on to describe a broad range of science that LSST will revolutionize: mapping the inner and outer Solar System, stellar populations in the Milky Way and nearby galaxies, the structure of the Milky Way disk and halo and other objects in the Local Volume, transient and variable objects both at low and high redshift, and the properties of normal and active galaxies at low and high redshift. It then turns to far-field cosmological topics, exploring properties of supernovae to z~1, strong and weak lensing, the large-scale distribution of galaxies and baryon oscillations, and how these different probes may be combined to constrain cosmological models and the physics of dark energy.Comment: 596 pages. Also available at full resolution at http://www.lsst.org/lsst/sciboo

    Ultra-high throughput functional enrichment of large monoamine oxidase (MAO-N) libraries by fluorescence activated cell sorting

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    Directed evolution enables the improvement and optimisation of enzymes for particular applications and is a valuable tool for biotechnology and synthetic biology. However, studies are often limited in their scope by the inability to screen very large numbers of variants to identify improved enzymes. One class of enzyme for which a universal, operationally simple ultra-high throughput (>106 variants per day) assay is not available is flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) dependent oxidases. The current high throughput assay involves a visual, colourimetric, colony-based screen, however this is not suitable for very large libraries and does not enable quantification of the relative fitness of variants. To address this, we describe an optimised method for the sensitive detection of oxidase activity within single Escherichia coli (E. coli) cells, using the monoamine oxidase from Aspergillus niger, MAO-N, as a model system. In contrast to other methods for the screening of oxidase activity in vivo, this method does not require cell surface expression, emulsion formation or the addition of an extracellular peroxidase. Furthermore, we show that fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) of large libraries derived from MAO-N under the assay conditions can enrich the library in functional variants at much higher rates than via the colony-based method. We demonstrate its use for directed evolution by identifying a new mutant of MAO-N with improved activity towards a novel secondary amine substrate. This work demonstrates, for the first time, an ultra-high throughput screening methodology widely applicable for the directed evolution of FAD dependent oxidases in E. coli

    The role of neutral Rh(PONOP)H, free NMe2H, boronium and ammonium salts in the dehydrocoupling of dimethylamine-borane using the cationic pincer [Rh(PONOP)(η2-H2)]+ catalyst

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    The σ-amine-borane pincer complex [Rh(PONOP)(η1-H3B·NMe3)][BArF4] [2, PONOP = κ3-NC5H3-2,6-(OPtBu2)2] is prepared by addition of H3B·NMe3 to the dihydrogen precursor [Rh(PONOP)(η2-H2)][BArF4], 1. In a similar way the related H3B·NMe2H complex [Rh(PONOP)(η1-H3B·NMe2H)][BArF4], 3, can be made in situ, but this undergoes dehydrocoupling to reform 1 and give the aminoborane dimer [H2BNMe2]2. NMR studies on this system reveal an intermediate neutral hydride forms, Rh(PONOP)H, 4, that has been prepared independently. 1 is a competent catalyst (2 mol%, ∼30 min) for the dehydrocoupling of H3B·Me2H. Kinetic, mechanistic and computational studies point to the role of NMe2H in both forming the neutral hydride, via deprotonation of a σ-amine-borane complex and formation of aminoborane, and closing the catalytic cycle by reprotonation of the hydride by the thus-formed dimethyl ammonium [NMe2H2]+. Competitive processes involving the generation of boronium [H2B(NMe2H)2]+ are also discussed, but shown to be higher in energy. Off-cycle adducts between [NMe2H2]+ or [H2B(NMe2H)2]+ and amine-boranes are also discussed that act to modify the kinetics of dehydrocoupling

    Pan-cancer Alterations of the MYC Oncogene and Its Proximal Network across the Cancer Genome Atlas

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    Although theMYConcogene has been implicated incancer, a systematic assessment of alterations ofMYC, related transcription factors, and co-regulatoryproteins, forming the proximal MYC network (PMN),across human cancers is lacking. Using computa-tional approaches, we define genomic and proteo-mic features associated with MYC and the PMNacross the 33 cancers of The Cancer Genome Atlas.Pan-cancer, 28% of all samples had at least one ofthe MYC paralogs amplified. In contrast, the MYCantagonists MGA and MNT were the most frequentlymutated or deleted members, proposing a roleas tumor suppressors.MYCalterations were mutu-ally exclusive withPIK3CA,PTEN,APC,orBRAFalterations, suggesting that MYC is a distinct onco-genic driver. Expression analysis revealed MYC-associated pathways in tumor subtypes, such asimmune response and growth factor signaling; chro-matin, translation, and DNA replication/repair wereconserved pan-cancer. This analysis reveals insightsinto MYC biology and is a reference for biomarkersand therapeutics for cancers with alterations ofMYC or the PMN

    Genomic, Pathway Network, and Immunologic Features Distinguishing Squamous Carcinomas

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    This integrated, multiplatform PanCancer Atlas study co-mapped and identified distinguishing molecular features of squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) from five sites associated with smokin

    Pan-Cancer Analysis of lncRNA Regulation Supports Their Targeting of Cancer Genes in Each Tumor Context

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    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are commonly dys-regulated in tumors, but only a handful are known toplay pathophysiological roles in cancer. We inferredlncRNAs that dysregulate cancer pathways, onco-genes, and tumor suppressors (cancer genes) bymodeling their effects on the activity of transcriptionfactors, RNA-binding proteins, and microRNAs in5,185 TCGA tumors and 1,019 ENCODE assays.Our predictions included hundreds of candidateonco- and tumor-suppressor lncRNAs (cancerlncRNAs) whose somatic alterations account for thedysregulation of dozens of cancer genes and path-ways in each of 14 tumor contexts. To demonstrateproof of concept, we showed that perturbations tar-geting OIP5-AS1 (an inferred tumor suppressor) andTUG1 and WT1-AS (inferred onco-lncRNAs) dysre-gulated cancer genes and altered proliferation ofbreast and gynecologic cancer cells. Our analysis in-dicates that, although most lncRNAs are dysregu-lated in a tumor-specific manner, some, includingOIP5-AS1, TUG1, NEAT1, MEG3, and TSIX, synergis-tically dysregulate cancer pathways in multiple tumorcontexts
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