25,891 research outputs found

    Super active regions and production of major solar flares

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    The success of imaging detectors with small fields of veiw such as HXIS or P/OF (Pinhole/Occulter Facility) depends heavily on pointing to the right place at the right time. During the solar maximum years many active regions coexist on the solar disk. Therefore, in order to point the imaging detector to the right place, it is important to know which active region is most likely to produce major flares. This knowledge is also important for flare prediction. As a first step toward this goal active regions have been identified which produced major flares observed by HXRBS (Hard X-Ray Burst Spectrometer) on SMM during February 1980 through December 1983. For this study the HXRBS Event List, an updated flare list compiled by the HXRBS group, and the Comprehensive Reports of the Solar Geophysical Data were used. During this period, HXRBS detected hard X-rays from approx 7000 solar flares, out of which only 441 flares produced X-rays with peak count rates exceeding 1000 counts/s. Flares with such high peak count rates are major flares. During the same time period about 2100 active regions passed across the solar disk, out of which only 153 were observed to produce major flares. (Some active regions are known to persist for several solar rotations, but at each passage new active region numbers are assigned and the estimate is based on active region numbers.) Out of these 153 active regions, 25 were observed to produce 5 or more major flares. Considering their high productivity of major flares, we may call these active regions super active regions. These 25 super active regions produced 209 major flares, accounting for 51% of all the major flares with identified active regions

    When and where to look to observe major solar flares

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    When and where to look is an important issue to observers planning to observe major solar flares. Prediction of major flares is also important because they influence the Earth's environment. Techniques for utilizing recently discovered solar hot spots and a solar activity periodicity of about 154 days in determining when and where to look to catch major flares are discussed

    Backscatter of hard X-rays in the solar atmosphere

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    The solar photosphere backscatters a substantial fraction of the hard X rays from solar flares incident upon it. This reflection was studied using a Monte Carlo simulation which takes into account Compton scattering and photo-electric absorption. Both isotropic and anisotropic X ray sources are considered. The bremsstrahlung from an anisotropic distribution of electrons are evaluated. By taking the reflection into account, the inconsistency is removed between recent observational data regarding the center-to-limb variation of solar X ray emission and the predictions of models in which accelerated electrons are moving down toward the photosphere

    Characteristics of gamma-ray line flares

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    Observations of solar gamma rays by the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) demonstrate that energetic protons and ions are rapidly accelerated during the impulsive phase. To understand the acceleration mechanisms for these particles, the characteristics of the gamma ray line flares observed by SMM were studied. Some very intense hard X-ray flares without detectable gamma ray lines were also investigated. Gamma ray line flares are distinguished from other flares by: (1) intense hard X-ray and microwave emissions; (2) delay of high energy hard X-rays; (3) emission of type 2 and/or type 4 radio bursts; and (4) flat hard X-ray spectra (average power law index: 3.1). The majority of the gamma ray line flares shared all these characteristics, and the remainder shared at least three of them. Positive correlations were found between durations of spike bursts and spatial sizes of flare loops as well as between delay times and durations of spike bursts

    Gamma-ray and microwave evidence for two phases of acceleration in solar flares

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    Relativistic electrons in large solar flares produce gamma ray continuum by bremsstrahlung and microwave emission by gyrosynchrotron radiation. Using observations of the 1972, August 4 flare, the electron spectrum and the physical properties of the common emitting region of these radiations were evaluated. Information was also obtained on energetic protons in this flare by using gamma ray lines. From the electron spectrum, the proton-to-electron ratio, and the time dependences of the microwave emission, the 2.2 MeV line and the gamma ray continuum, it was concluded that in large solar flares relativistic electrons and energetic nuclei are accelerated by a mechanism which is different from the mechanism which accelerates approximately less than 100 keV electrons in flares

    Global Analysis of Data on the Spin-orbit-coupled A1Σ+ and b3Πu States of Cs2

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    We present experimentally derived potential curves and spin-orbit interaction functions for the strongly perturbed A1+ u and b3u states of the cesium dimer. The results are based on data from several sources. Laser-induced fluorescence Fourier transform spectroscopy (LIF FTS) was used some time ago in the Laboratoire Aim´e Cotton primarily to study the X1+ g state. More recent work at Tsinghua University provides information from moderate resolution spectroscopy on the lowest levels of the b3± 0u states as well as additional high resolution data. From Innsbruck University, we have precision data obtained with cold Cs2 molecules. Recent data from Temple University was obtained using the optical-optical double resonance polarization spectroscopy technique, and finally, a group at the University of Latvia has added additional LIF FTS data. In the Hamiltonian matrix, we have used analytic potentials (the Expanded Morse Oscillator form) with both finite-difference (FD) coupled-channels and discrete variable representation (DVR) calculations of the term values. Fitted diagonal and off-diagonal spin-orbit functions are obtained and compared with ab initio results from Temple and Moscow State universities

    eta nucleus optical potential in a chiral unitary approach

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    The self-energy of an eta in a nuclear medium is calculated in a chiral unitary model, and applied to eta states in nuclei. Our calculation predicts an attractive eta nucleus optical potential which can accommodate many eta bound states in different nuclei.Comment: 4 pages, 2 figures, Talk given at the XVI International Conference on Particles and Nucle

    Chemoviscosity modeling for thermosetting resin systems, part 3

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    A new analytical model for simulating chemoviscosity resin has been formulated. The model is developed by modifying the well established Williams-Landel-Ferry (WLF) theory in polymer rheology for thermoplastic materials. By introducing a relationship between the glass transition temperature (T sub g (t)) and the degree of cure alpha(t) of the resin system under cure, the WLF theory can be modified to account for the factor of reaction time. Temperature-dependent functions of the modified WLF theory parameters C sub 1 (T) and C sub 2 (T) were determined from the isothermal cure data. Theoretical predictions of the model for the resin under dynamic heating cure cycles were shown to compare favorably with the experimental data. This work represents a progress toward establishing a chemoviscosity model which is capable of not only describing viscosity profiles accurately under various cure cycles, but also correlating viscosity data to the changes of physical properties associated with the structural transformations of the thermosetting resin systems during cure
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