37 research outputs found

    Kajian Biaya Penggunaan Omeprazole Sebagai Terapi Profilaksis Gastritis Pada Pasien Demam Dengue dan Demam Berdarah Dengue di RSUD X daerah Jakarta Periode Januari √Ę‚ā¨‚Äú Desember 2014

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    Gastritis merupakan komplikasi yang dapat terjadi pada pasien demam dengue dan demam berdarah dengue. Faktor risiko perdarahan gastrointestinal adalah trombosit <50.000/mm3. Terapi pada pasien gastritis dapat diberikan omeprazole. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi pengaruh pemberian omeprazole pada pasien demam dengue dan demam berdarah dengue terhadap biaya, hari perawatan dan biaya omeprazole di RSUD X daerah Jakarta. Rancangan penelitian yang digunakan adalah kohort retrospektif. Kriteria inklusi adalah pasien rawat inap kelas tiga dengan diagnosis demam dengue dan demam berdarah dengue pada bulan Januari sampai Desember 2014. Sampel penelitian terdiri dari 42 pasien kelompok nonkriteria (trombosit>50.000/mm3) dan 39 pasien kelompok kriteria (trombosit<50.000/mm3). Alat pengumpul data merupakan catatan rekam medik pasien. Analisis data menggunakan uji Mann-Whitney, t-test dan uji Chi-Square. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penggunaan omeprazole tidak terdapat perbedaan total biaya perawatan (p=0,345) dan biaya omeprazole (p=0,916) antara kelompok nonkriteria dan kelompok kriteria. Terdapat perbedaan hari rawat (p=0,004) pada kelompok nonkriteria dengan kelompok kriteria. Kategori pasien yaitu kelompok pasien nonkriteria dan kelompok kriteria tidak berpengaruh terhadap total biaya dan biaya omeprazole dilihat dari nilai OR secara berturut-turut sebesar 1,191 (IK; 0,450-3,152), 1,182 (IK; 0,469-2,977). Kategori pasien berpengaruh signifikan (p=0,005) dalam peningkatan lama hari rawat dengan OR (odds ratio) = 3,963 (IK; 1,530 √Ę‚ā¨‚Äú 10,265). Komorbiditas merupakan faktor yang mempengaruhi terjadinya peningkatan total biaya perawatan, lama hari rawat dan biaya penggunaan omeprazole.Kata kunci : omeprazole, gastritis, demam berdarah dengue, biaya perawatan, lama rawat inapGastritis is a complication that can occur in patients with dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever. Risk factor for gastrointestinal bleeding is platelet count <50.000/mm3. Omeprazole is the one of choice for gastritis prophylaxis therapy. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of omeprazole in patients with dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever according to the cost, length of stay and the cost of omeprazole at X Public Hospital in Jakarta. Retrospective cohort is design of the study. The inclusion criteria were third class of inpatients with a diagnosis of dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever in January to December 2014. The study sample consisted of 42 patients in the noncriteria group (platelets count>50,000 / mm3) and 39 patients criteria group (platelets count<50,000 / mm3 ). Data collection tool is a patient medical record. Data analysis using the Mann-Whitney test, t-test and Chi-Square test. Results showed that use of omeprazole there is no difference in the total cost of treatment (p = 0.345) and the cost of omeprazole (p = 0.916) between the group of noncriteria and criteria group. There are differences in length of stay (p = 0.004) in the group of noncriteria with the group criteria. Noncriteria group (platelets> 50,000 / mm3) and a group of criteria (platelet count <50,000 / mm3) did not affect the total cost, and cost of omeprazole seen from the OR (odds ratio) respectively, 1,191 (CI; 0,450 - 3,152), 1,182 (CI; 0,469 - 2,977). Platelet count have a significant effect (p = 0.005) in the increased length of stay with OR = 3.963 (CI; 1.530 - 10.265). Comorbidity is a factor that affecting the increase in the total cost, length of stay and cost of omeprazole.Key words : omeprazole, gastritis, dengue hemorraghic fever, cost of hospitalization, length of sta

    Kajian Biaya Penggunaan Omeprazole Sebagai Terapi Profilaksis Gastritis Pada Pasien Demam Dengue dan Demam Berdarah Dengue di RSUD X daerah Jakarta Periode Januari ‚Äď Desember 2014

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    Gastritis merupakan komplikasi yang dapat terjadi pada pasien demam dengue dan demam berdarah dengue. Faktor risiko perdarahan gastrointestinal adalah trombosit 50.000/mm3) dan 39 pasien kelompok kriteria (trombosit50,000 / mm3) and 39 patients criteria group (platelets count 50,000 / mm3) and a group of criteria (platelet count <50,000 / mm3) did not affect the total cost, and cost of omeprazole seen from the OR (odds ratio) respectively, 1,191 (CI; 0,450 - 3,152), 1,182 (CI; 0,469 - 2,977). Platelet count have a significant effect (p = 0.005) in the increased length of stay with OR = 3.963 (CI; 1.530 - 10.265). Comorbidity is a factor that affecting the increase in the total cost, length of stay and cost of omeprazole.Key words : omeprazole, gastritis, dengue hemorraghic fever, cost of hospitalization, length of sta

    Evaluasi Penggunaan Antibiotik dengan Metode Gyssens pada Pasien Stroke Rawat Inap di RSUD Koja secara Retrospektif (Periode KJS dan BPJS)

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    Stroke is a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Patients with stroke are susceptible to medical complications, especially infections. This study aim to evaluate antibiotic by stroke inpatients hospitalized in RSUD Koja (KJS and BPJS period) with Gyssens methods. The study design is a retrospective cross-sectional. The sample is consisted of 112 medical records from KJS period (July 2013-December 2013) and 74 medical records from BPJS period (January 2014-June 2014) taken by total sampling. The use of antibiotic were analyzed using Chi Square and logistic regression multivariate. The percentage of antibiotic use was 23,11%, mostly were ceftriaxon 33,3%, ceftizozim 7,6% and amoxicillin ‚Äď clavulanic acid 7,6%. Length of stay more than 7 days was 77,96%. The most common route of antibiotic administration was parenteral (68,67%). Patients that were given antibiotics were,among others,diagnosal by bronchopneumonia (29,33%), pulmonary tuberculosis and 17,6% and urinary tract infection (8,7%). The clinical outcome showed that 69,3% of 186 patients were recovered after antibiotic were given to treat their infections. Gyssen evaluation method showed that rational antibiotic used on KJS period was 77,4% and BPJS periods was 81,3%. There were correlations between rational use at antibiotic and the route of administration, between clinical outcome anduse at diagnosis and route of administration. The conclusion of this study according to Gyssen method is the rational antibiotic influence the clinical outcome (p < 0,05

    PHARMACIST INVOLVEMENT TO DECREASE DRUG-RELATED PROBLEMS AMONG GERIATRIC PATIENTS IN INDONESIAN PRIMARY HEALTH CENTERS

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    √ā¬†√ā¬†Objective: The studies have demonstrated that older people often suffer from multiple diseases and are thus prescribed many different drugs. Therefore, drug-related problems (DRPs) are common in the elderly. The main objectives of this study were to reduce the number of DRPs in the elderly through pharmacist involvement and to analyze differences after pharmacist recommendations.Methods: In a quasi-experimental study, 12 primary health centers were selected and randomly divided into two groups (six in each group). In the first group, the physicians received pharmacist recommendations verbally through discussions, and in the second group, the physicians received recommendations through letters. DRPs were analyzed from all older inpatients' medical records 1 month before and 1 month after the pharmacist recommendations. The main outcome being measured was the incidence of DRPs, classified into problems, and causes according to the Indonesian translated version of Pharmaceutical Care Network Europe, Version 6.2 (PCNE V 6.2). The problems were identified based on journal articles and other relevant literature.Results: A total of 205 patients were analyzed before pharmacist intervention (Group 1: 121; Group 2: 84) and 202 patients after the intervention (Group 1: 108; Group 2: 94). The most common problem in these elderly patients was that they suffered from toxic effects. The most common cause was inappropriate drug selection. The number of DRPs and causes were decreased significantly through the discussions (Wilcoxon signed-rank test, problems p=0.027, causes p=0.028). DRPs were also significantly decreased through the recommendation letters (paired t-test, number of problems p=0.003, and causes p=0.004). Discussion with physicians seemed more effective and decreased more problems (p=0.001) and causes (p=0.002). Through discussions, the decrease in a number of problems was 20.83√ā¬Ī8.931, and the decrease in the number of causes was 25.33√ā¬Ī11.431 versus the recommendation letter, at 4.17√ā¬Ī1.941 and 5.17√ā¬Ī2.483, respectively.Conclusion: Pharmacist involvement decreased DRPs among older inpatients. Discussing DRPs with the physicians treating the patients is more effective than giving recommendations in writing only. The PCNE V 6.2 DRP classification system is useful for documenting DRPs among the elderly as it can help pharmacists develop plans to reduce DRPs

    FORMULASI GEL MENGGUNAKAN SERBUK DAGING IKAN HARUAN (Channa striatus) SEBAGAI PENYEMBUH LUKA

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    Daging¬† ikan¬† haruan¬† (Channa¬† striatus)¬† dipercaya¬† dapat¬† digunakan¬† untuk menyembuhkan¬† luka¬† karena¬† mengandung¬† protein,¬† asam¬† amino¬† esensial,¬† lemak dan¬† asam¬† lemak¬† yang¬† berperan¬† dalam¬† proses¬† penyembuhan¬† luka.¬† Tujuan¬† dari penelitian¬† ini¬† ialah¬† membuat¬† gel¬† yang mengandung¬† serbuk¬† daging¬† ikan¬† haruan sebagai penyembuh luka. Pada penelitian ini digunakan serbuk daging ikan haruan (Channa striatus) sebagai zat aktif sebanyak 1 gram pada formula 1 dan 2 gram pada¬† formula¬† 2.¬† Serbuk¬† daging¬† ikan¬† haruan¬† dibuat¬† suspensi¬† dengan¬† ukuran partikel nanometer dengan metode gelasi ionik menggunakan kitosan dan natrium tripolifosfat,¬† kemudian¬† dibuat¬† menjadi¬† bentuk¬† sedian¬† gel¬† dengan¬† menggunakan gelling agentHPMC. Suspensi yang dihasilkan dilakukan karakterisasi fisika dan kimia. Hasil karakterisasi suspensi formula 1 dan formula 2 adalah sebagai berikut :¬† ukuran¬† partikel¬† berturut-turut¬† 491,8¬† -¬† 665,5¬† nm,¬† 481,8¬† ‚Äď 828,1¬† nm;¬† indeks polidispersitas 0,512, 0,456; nilai potensial zeta (+)29,15mV, (+)29,35mV; kedua formula¬† mempunyai¬† partikel¬† berbentuk¬† sferis.¬† Sediaan¬† gel¬† yang¬† dihasilkan dievaluasi¬† aktivitas¬† penyembuhan¬† luka¬† secara¬† in¬† vivo.¬† Dari¬† hasil¬† uji¬† in¬† vivo sediaan gel serbuk daging ikan haruan dapat digunakan sebagai penyembuh luka. Kata¬† Kunci:¬† gel,¬† gelasi¬† ionik,¬† haruan¬† (Channa¬† striatus),¬† kitosan,¬† natrium tripolifosfat, luka

    Efek Kapsul Ekstrak Etanol Kulit Buah Delima (Punica granatum L.) terhadap Penanda Pembentukan dan Kualitas Tulang pada Wanita Pascamenopause

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    Studies of pomegranate peel (Punica granatum L.), which contain ellagic acid, suggest its ability to increase osteoblast, calcium, and phosphorus in ovariectomized rats. The effects of the pomegranate peel extracts on postmenopausal women was not known. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of pomegranate peel ethanol extract capsules in the modulation of bone formation and bone quality markers in postmenopausal women. This study is a pilot study of 1st phase of clinical trial using parallel, randomized, double-blind, and placebo controlled design, with 30 subjects. Subjects were randomized to receive commercial capsules of pomegranate peel ethanol extract 2 √ó 1100 mg/ day or placebo, for 8 weeks. Levels of osteocalcin, calcium, and phosphorus were examined before and after treatment. This study showed that administration of the capsules in postmenopausal women tends to reduce blood osteocalcin level (4,129¬Ī5,66 ng/mL on placebo group versus 1,79¬Ī5,04 ng/mL on punica group, p=0,245), has not significant on blood calcium level (9,13¬Ī0,36 mg/dL placebo group versus 9,21¬Ī0,39 mg/dL punica group, p=0,379), has not significant on blood phosphorus level (3,93¬Ī0,38 mg/dL placebo group versus 4,12¬Ī0,41 mg/dL on punica group, p=0,138), does not affect the function of liver and kidney, and was well tolerated. In conclusion, the commercial capsules is safe, potentially reduce marker of bone formation serum level,and increase bone quality on postmenopausal women

    IDENTIFICATION OF FGFR INHIBITOR AS ST2 RECEPTOR/INTERLEUKIN-1 RECEPTOR-LIKE 1 INHIBITOR IN CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE DUE TO EXPOSURE TO E-CIGARETTES BY NETWORK PHARMACOLOGY AND MOLECULAR DOCKING PREDICTION

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    Objective: This study was designed to search for candidate drugs that act on IL-33 and ST2, which was carried out using a bioinformatics approach. Methods: We first analyzed Network Electronic Cigarette Smokes Predictions of therapeutic targets by Cytoscape. We collected from the Swiss TargetPrediction database [http://www. swisstargetprediction. ch/] by inputting each compound structure of the electronic cigarette smoke in SDF format. The target protein data is then supplemented with UniProt ID data to uniform protein identity. We then identified COPD Related Targets in Humans by Cytoscape. Subsequently, we identified key receptors in the pathogenesis of COPD. All target proteins that have a significant role in the pathogenesis of COPD exposed to cigarette smoke will be known from the combination of this network. Results: Based on the validation results of the protein receptor for ST2, a protein is used as a receptor with PDB ID: 1IRA. After analyzed by PyMol software, a protein with PDB ID 1IRA it has no missing residue in its sequenceDrug candidates analyzed by the structural similarity with the native ligand using PubChem and DRUGBANK analysis are follow: N-acetylmannosamine, Aceneuramic acid, Ceramide AP, Ceramide NP, Hg9a-9, Nonanoyl-N-hydroxyethylglucamide, N-Acetyl-2-deoxy-2-amino-galactose, N-Acetyllactosamine, MLi/2,6-dimethyl-4-[6-[5-[1-methylcyclopropyl] oxy-1H-indazol-3-yl] pyrimidin-4-yl] morpholine, Terazosin, BMS-911543, NAG Inhibitor, FGFR Inhibitor/sodium; 2-amino-5-[1-methoxy-2-methylindolizine-3-carbonyl] benzoate. After docking, the smallest or more negative binding affinity values are obtained. The stronger the FGFR Inhibitor ligand showed the interaction with the Receptor with a binding affinity value of-9.0 kcal/mol with mode/position 0, and RMSD 0.0. The second smallest binding affinity value is the NAG ligand with a-8.5 kcal/mol with mode/position 0 and RMSD 0.0. Conclusion: The findings revealed that FGFR Inhibitor was a suitable repurposing medication for anti-COPD development via the IL-33/ST-2 signaling pathway

    Evaluasi Penggunaan Antibiotik Dengan Metode Gyssens Pada Pasien Stroke Rawat Inap Di RSUD Koja Secara Retrospektif (Periode KJS Dan BPJS)

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    Stroke is a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Patients with stroke are susceptible to medical complications, especially infections. This study aim to evaluate antibiotic by stroke inpatients hospitalized in RSUD Koja (KJS and BPJS period) with Gyssens methods. The study design is a retrospective cross-sectional. The sample is consisted of 112 medical records from KJS period (July 2013-December 2013) and 74 medical records from BPJS period (January 2014-June 2014) taken by total sampling. The use of antibiotic were analyzed using Chi Square and logistic regression multivariate. The percentage of antibiotic use was 23,11%, mostly were ceftriaxon 33,3%, ceftizozim 7,6% and amoxicillin ‚Äď clavulanic acid 7,6%. Length of stay more than 7 days was 77,96%. The most common route of antibiotic administration was parenteral (68,67%). Patients that were given antibiotics were,among others,diagnosal by bronchopneumonia (29,33%), pulmonary tuberculosis and 17,6% and urinary tract infection (8,7%). The clinical outcome showed that 69,3% of 186 patients were recovered after antibiotic were given to treat their infections. Gyssen evaluation method showed that rational antibiotic used on KJS period was 77,4% and BPJS periods was 81,3%. There were correlations between rational use at antibiotic and the route of administration, between clinical outcome anduse at diagnosis and route of administration. The conclusion of this study according to Gyssen method is the rational antibiotic influence the clinical outcome (p &lt; 0,05)

    Efek Kapsul Ekstrak Etanol Kulit Buah Delima (Punica Granatum L.) terhadap Penanda Pembentukan dan Kualitas Tulang pada Wanita Pascamenopause

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    Studies of pomegranate peel (Punica granatum L.), which contain ellagic acid, suggest its ability to increase osteoblast, calcium, and phosphorus in ovariectomized rats. The effects of the pomegranate peel extracts on postmenopausal women was not known. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of pomegranate peel ethanol extract capsules in the modulation of bone formation and bone quality markers in postmenopausal women. This study is a pilot study of 1st phase of clinical trial using parallel, randomized, double-blind, and placebo controlled design, with 30 subjects. Subjects were randomized to receive commercial capsules of pomegranate peel ethanol extract 2 √ó 1100 mg/ day or placebo, for 8 weeks. Levels of osteocalcin, calcium, and phosphorus were examined before and after treatment. This study showed that administration of the capsules in postmenopausal women tends to reduce blood osteocalcin level (4,129¬Ī5,66 ng/mL on placebo group versus 1,79¬Ī5,04 ng/mL on punica group, p=0,245), has not significant on blood calcium level (9,13¬Ī0,36 mg/dL placebo group versus 9,21¬Ī0,39 mg/dL punica group, p=0,379), has not significant on blood phosphorus level (3,93¬Ī0,38 mg/dL placebo group versus 4,12¬Ī0,41 mg/dL on punica group, p=0,138), does not affect the function of liver and kidney, and was well tolerated. In conclusion, the commercial capsules is safe, potentially reduce marker of bone formation serum level,and increase bone quality on postmenopausal women

    Pemanfaatan Maltodekstrin Pati Terigu Sebagai Eksipien Dalam Formula Sediaan Tablet Dan Niosom

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    The Use of Maltodextrin from Wheat Starch as an Exipient in Formula Tablet and Niosom dosage form. Wheat starch normally can be used as a tablet filler only, because the flow rate and binding capacity are not good enough. The wheat starch should be treated as follows : protein and amine free Bogasari wheat flour starch were hydrolyzed by &Atilde;ŇĹ&Acirc;&plusmn;-amylase enzyme (Liquezym EX&Atilde;&sbquo;&Acirc;&reg;) at variable temperature and time incubation to produce maltodextrin with different Dextrose Equivalent (DE) value. The maltodextrin could be used as tablet binder on wet granulation, tablet filler and binder on direct compress, a proniosom carrier to prepare niosom, a tablet filler, binder and disintegrator on direct compress tablet, a sugar coated tablet material. All of the product used active compound as amodel and the quality were evaluated according to the 4thed. of Indonesian Pharmacopeae and other valid references. The result shows that maltodextrin DE 1&Atilde;&cent;&Acirc;&euro;&Acirc;&ldquo;5 could be used as a tablet binder which was processed by wet granulation on 2-5% concentration, as a tablet binder and filler which was processed by direct compress on 30-35%; maltodextrin DE 10-15 could be used as a proniosom carrier then continued to niosom preparation with surfactant composition of 2 mmol (1 mmol for span 60 and 1 mmol for cholesterol). The surfactant and drug concentration of 100 mmol/lt and 5 mmol/lt subsequently was proved to loading the drug as much as 81.28%. Maltodextrin DE 15-20 could be used as a tablet filler, binder and disintegrator at 84%, and starch hydrolyzed of DE 35-40 as a sugar coating which was more economical than sugar
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