48 research outputs found

    Greenhouse gas emissions in the agricultural and forestry sectors of Uruguay and opportunities in the carbon market

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    Fossil fuel combustion and changes in the land use (including deforestation) has resulted in an annual rate of carbon dioxide (CO2) accumulation in the atmosphere of 3,500 million metric tones. The accumulation of CO2 and other greenhouse gases is expected to cause observable climatic changes in the 21st century. The International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has been publishing assessment reports to governments since the early 1990’s. The newest report to be published in 2001 concludes that the global temperature in the 20th century has increased 0.6 ± 0.2°C, and that the globally averaged surface temperature is projected to warm 1.4°C to 5.8°C by 2100 relative to 1990. The report also includes observational evidence indicating that raises in regional temperatures have already affected several biological systems around the world. Even though it is still difficult to determine how much of the global warming can be attributed to human activity, there is overwhelming agreement that measures should be taken to reverse the current trend of increased accumulation of greenhouse gases (GHG) in the atmosphere. There are basically two paths to reverse such trend: (a) reducing GHG emissions through cleaner energy generation, and (b) removing CO2 through carbon “sinks” or carbon sequestration. Regarding the option of removing CO2 from the atmosphere, IPCC has estimated that agricultural lands have the potential for removing 40,000 - 80,000 million metric tones of carbon over the next 50 to 100 years. Thus, soil carbon sequestration in agricultural lands alone might offset the effects of fossil fuel emissions and land use changes for 10-20 years or longer. Additional carbon can be sequestered in well-managed forests and grassland soils. The present article describes the current situation in the agricultural and forestry sectors of Uruguay with respect to greenhouse gas emissions and discusses the possibility of trading carbon certificates if a carbon trading market is established

    Climate services and insurance: scaling climate smart agriculture

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    One of the main challenges of climate-smart agriculture (CSA) is finding ways to promote the adoption at scale (Editor’s note: 'scaling', 'at scale' or 'to scale' are used throughout this article to mean ‘scaling-out’) of CSA practices and technologies. Climate services and insurance can constitute a tool to scale CSA by providing an enabling environment that can support the adoption of CSA practices while protecting against the impacts of climate extremes. By using a definition of climate services which includes the production, translation, transfer, and use of climate knowledge and information in climate-informed decision-making and climatesmart policy and planning, this paper aims to discuss how climate services and insurance can bring CSA to scale. Three case studies are presented. It is recognised that understanding the knowledge networks through which information flows, and affects the use of climate information, is critical for promoting CSA at scale