42 research outputs found

    Investigation of Alcohol-Drinking Levels in the Swiss Population: Differences in Diet and Associations with Sociodemographic, Lifestyle and Anthropometric Factors

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    Alcohol-drinking levels in Switzerland were investigated to identify dietary differences and explore the relationship between drinking levels and sociodemographic, lifestyle and anthropometric factors using the National Nutrition Survey menuCH (n = 2057, 18-75 years). After two 24 h dietary recalls (24HDRs), participants were categorized into four subgroups: abstainers (both self-declared alcohol avoidance and no alcohol reported); no alcohol reported; moderate drinkers (women/men < 12 g/<24 g mean daily alcohol, respectively); and heavy drinkers (women/men > 12 g/>24 g mean daily alcohol, respectively). Differences in diet between these groups were described by comparing daily total energy and non-alcohol energy intake, macronutrient energy contribution, food group intake, and diet quality (Alternate Healthy Eating Index excluding alcohol). The sociodemographic, anthropometric and lifestyle factors that determine alcohol-drinking levels were investigated using multinomial logistic regression. Abstainers reported the lowest daily energy intake (total and non-alcohol), heavy drinkers had the highest total energy intake and the lowest diet quality, and moderate drinkers had the highest non-alcohol energy intake. Sex, age, language region, body mass index, household size, smoking status, self-reported health status and following a diet were significantly associated with different alcohol-drinking subgroups. Results could facilitate interventions that target subgroups who exceed safe alcohol-drinking levels and lead unfavorable lifestyles. Keywords: 24 h dietary recall; Alternate Healthy Eating Index; alcohol-drinking level; energy intake; macronutrient; menuCH

    Amine???Rich Hydrogels Enhance Solar Water Oxidation via Boosting Proton???Coupled Electron Transfer

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    Photoelectrochemical (PEC) water oxidation is a highly challenging task that acts as a bottleneck for efficient solar hydrogen production. It is because each cycle of water oxidation is composed of four proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) processes and conventional photoanodes and cocatalysts have limited roles in enhancing the charge separation and storage rather than in enhancing catalytic activity. In this study, a simple and generally applicable strategy to improve the PEC performance of water oxidation photoanodes through their modification with polyethyleneimine (PEI) hydrogel is reported. The rich amine groups of PEI not only allow the facile and stable modification of photoanodes by crosslinking but also contribute to improving the kinetics of PEC water oxidation by boosting the PCET. Consequently, the PEC performance of various photoanodes, such as BiVO4, Fe2O3, and TiO2, is significantly enhanced in terms of photocurrent densities and onset potentials even in the presence of notable cocatalyst, cobalt phosphate. The present study provides new insights into and strategies for the design of efficient photoelectrodes and PEC devices

    Investigation of alcohol-drinking levels in the Swiss population : differences in diet and associations with sociodemographic, lifestyle and anthropometric factors

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    Alcohol-drinking levels in Switzerland were investigated to identify dietary differences and explore the relationship between drinking levels and sociodemographic, lifestyle and anthropometric factors using the National Nutrition Survey menuCH (n = 2057, 18-75 years). After two 24 h dietary recalls (24HDRs), participants were categorized into four subgroups: abstainers (both self-declared alcohol avoidance and no alcohol reported); no alcohol reported; moderate drinkers (women/men 12 g/>24 g mean daily alcohol, respectively). Differences in diet between these groups were described by comparing daily total energy and non-alcohol energy intake, macronutrient energy contribution, food group intake, and diet quality (Alternate Healthy Eating Index excluding alcohol). The sociodemographic, anthropometric and lifestyle factors that determine alcohol-drinking levels were investigated using multinomial logistic regression. Abstainers reported the lowest daily energy intake (total and non-alcohol), heavy drinkers had the highest total energy intake and the lowest diet quality, and moderate drinkers had the highest non-alcohol energy intake. Sex, age, language region, body mass index, household size, smoking status, self-reported health status and following a diet were significantly associated with different alcohol-drinking subgroups. Results could facilitate interventions that target subgroups who exceed safe alcohol-drinking levels and lead unfavorable lifestyles

    Direct Conversion of Mouse Fibroblasts into Cholangiocyte Progenitor Cells

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    Disorders of the biliary epithelium, known as cholangiopathies, cause severe and irreversible liver diseases. The limited accessibility of bile duct precludes modeling of several cholangiocyte-mediated diseases. Therefore, novel approaches for obtaining functional cholangiocytes with high purity are needed. Previous work has shown that the combination of Hnf1β and Foxa3 could directly convert mouse fibroblasts into bipotential hepatic stem cell-like cells, termed iHepSCs. However, the efficiency of converting fibroblasts into iHepSCs is low, and these iHepSCs exhibit extremely low differentiation potential into cholangiocytes, thus hindering the translation of iHepSCs to the clinic. Here, we describe that the expression of Hnf1α and Foxa3 dramatically facilitates the robust generation of iHepSCs. Notably, prolonged in vitro culture of Hnf1α- and Foxa3-derived iHepSCs induces a Notch signaling-mediated secondary conversion into cholangiocyte progenitor-like cells that display dramatically enhanced differentiation capacity into mature cholangiocytes. Our study provides a robust two-step approach for obtaining cholangiocyte progenitor-like cells using defined factors

    Investigation of Alcohol-Drinking Levels in the Swiss Population: Differences in Diet and Associations with Sociodemographic, Lifestyle and Anthropometric Factors

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    Alcohol-drinking levels in Switzerland were investigated to identify dietary differences and explore the relationship between drinking levels and sociodemographic, lifestyle and anthropometric factors using the National Nutrition Survey menuCH (n = 2057, 18–75 years). After two 24 h dietary recalls (24HDRs), participants were categorized into four subgroups: abstainers (both self-declared alcohol avoidance and no alcohol reported); no alcohol reported; moderate drinkers (women/men < 12 g/<24 g mean daily alcohol, respectively); and heavy drinkers (women/men > 12 g/>24 g mean daily alcohol, respectively). Differences in diet between these groups were described by comparing daily total energy and non-alcohol energy intake, macronutrient energy contribution, food group intake, and diet quality (Alternate Healthy Eating Index excluding alcohol). The sociodemographic, anthropometric and lifestyle factors that determine alcohol-drinking levels were investigated using multinomial logistic regression. Abstainers reported the lowest daily energy intake (total and non-alcohol), heavy drinkers had the highest total energy intake and the lowest diet quality, and moderate drinkers had the highest non-alcohol energy intake. Sex, age, language region, body mass index, household size, smoking status, self-reported health status and following a diet were significantly associated with different alcohol-drinking subgroups. Results could facilitate interventions that target subgroups who exceed safe alcohol-drinking levels and lead unfavorable lifestyles

    Bee Venom Phospholipase A2 Alleviate House Dust Mite-Induced Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions by the CD206 Mannose Receptor

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    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by highly pruritic, erythematous, and eczematous skin plaques. We previously reported that phospholipase A2 (PLA2) derived from bee venom alleviates AD-like skin lesions induced by 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) and house dust mite extract (Dermatophagoides farinae extract, DFE) in a murine model. However, the underlying mechanisms of PLA2 action in actopic dermatitis remain unclear. In this study, we showed that PLA2 treatment inhibited epidermal thickness, serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) and cytokine levels, macrophage and mast cell infiltration in the ear of an AD model induced by DFE and DNCB. In contrast, these effects were abrogated in CD206 mannose receptor-deficient mice exposed to DFE and DNCB in the ear. These data suggest that bvPLA2 alleviates atopic skin inflammation via interaction with CD206

    Catalytic Multilayers for Efficient Solar Water Oxidation through Catalyst Loading and Surface-State Passivation of BiVO4 Photoanodes

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    We studied the kinetics of photoelectrochemical (PEC) water oxidation using a model photoanode BiVO4 modified with various water oxidation catalysts (WOCs) by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. In particular, we prepared BiVO4 photoanodes with catalytic multilayers (CMs), where cationic polyelectrolytes and anionic polyoxometalate (POM) WOCs were assembled in a desired amount at a nanoscale precision, and compared their performance with those with well-known WOCs such as cobalt phosphate (CoPi) and NiOOH. Our comparative kinetics analysis suggested that the deposition of the CMs improved the kinetics of both the photogenerated charge carrier separation/transport in bulk BiVO4 due to passivation of surface recombination centers and water oxidation at the electrode/electrolyte interface due to deposition of efficient molecular WOCs. On the contrary, the conventional WOCs were mostly effective in the former and less effective in the latter, which is consistent with previous reports. These findings explain why the CMs exhibit an outstanding performance. We also found that separated charge carriers can be efficiently transported to POM WOCs via a hopping mechanism due to the delicate architecture of the CMs, which is reminiscent of natural photosynthetic systems. We believe that this study can not only broaden our understanding on the underlying mechanism of PEC water oxidation but also provide insights for the design and fabrication of novel electrochemical and PEC devices, including efficient water oxidation photoanodes

    Loss of SP-A in the Lung Exacerbates Pulmonary Fibrosis

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    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a devastating and common chronic lung disease that is pathologically characterized by the destruction of lung architecture and the accumulation of extracellular matrix in the lung. Previous studies have shown an association between lung surfactant protein (SP) and the pathogenesis of IPF, as demonstrated by mutations and the altered expression of SP in patients with IPF. However, the role of SP in the development of lung fibrosis is poorly understood. In this study, the role of surfactant protein A (SP-A) was explored in experimental lung fibrosis induced with a low or high dose of bleomycin (BLM) and CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genetic deletion of SP-A. Our results showed that lung SP-A deficiency in mice promoted the development of fibrotic damage and exacerbated inflammatory responses to the BLM challenge. In vitro experiments with murine lung epithelial LA-4 cells demonstrated that in response to transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), LA-4 cells had a decreased protein expression of SP-A. Furthermore, exogenous SP administration to LA-4 cells inhibited the TGF-β1-induced upregulation of fibrotic markers. Overall, these findings suggest a novel antifibrotic mechanism of SP-A in the development of lung fibrosis, which indicates the therapeutic potential of the lung SP-A in preventing the development of IPF
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