422 research outputs found

    Is there a hidden hole in Type Ia supernova remnants?

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    In this paper we report on the bulk features of the hole carved by the companion star in the material ejected during a Type Ia supernova explosion. In particular we are interested in the long term evolution of the hole as well as in its fingerprint in the geometry of the supernova remnant after several centuries of evolution, which is a hot topic in current Type Iasupernovae studies. We use an axisymmetric smoothed particle hydrodynamics code to characterize the geometric properties of the supernova remnant resulting from the interaction of this ejected material with the ambient medium. Our aim is to use supernova remnant observations to constrain the single degenerate scenario for Type Ia supernova progenitors. Our simulations show that the hole will remain open during centuries, although its partial or total closure at later times due to hydrodynamic instabilities is not excluded. Close to the edge of the hole, the Rayleigh-Taylor instability grows faster, leading to plumes that approach the edge of the forward shock. We also discuss other geometrical properties of the simulations, like the evolution of the contact discontinuity.Comment: 48 pages, 17 figures; Accepted for publication in Ap

    Balmer-Dominated Shocks Exclude Hot Progenitors for Many Type Ia Supernovae

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    The evolutionary mechanism underlying Type Ia supernova explosions remains unknown. Recent efforts to constrain progenitor models based on the influence that their high energy emission would have on the interstellar medium (ISM) of galaxies have proven successful. For individual remnants, Balmer-dominated shocks reveal the ionization state of hydrogen in the immediately surrounding gas. Here we report deep upper limits on the temperature and luminosity of the progenitors of four Type Ia remnants with associated Balmer filaments: SN 1006, 0509-67.5, 0519-69.0, and DEM L71. For SN 1006, existing observations of helium line emission in the diffuse emission ahead of the shock provide an additional constraint on the helium ionization state in the vicinity of the remnant. Using the photoionization code Cloudy, we show that these constraints exclude any hot, luminous progenitor for SN 1006, including stably hydrogen or helium nuclear-burning white dwarfs, as well as any Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarf accreting matter at ≳9.5×10−8M⊙/\gtrsim 9.5\times10^{-8}M_{\odot}/yr via a disk. For 0509-67.5, the Balmer emission alone rules out any such white dwarf accreting ≳1.4×10−8M⊙/\gtrsim 1.4\times10^{-8}M_{\odot}/yr. For 0519-69.0 and DEM L71, the inferred ambient ionization state of hydrogen is only weakly in tension with a recently hot, luminous progenitor, and cannot be distinguished from e.g., a relatively higher local Lyman continuum background, without additional line measurements. Future deep spectroscopic observations will resolve this ambiguity, and can either detect the influence of any luminous progenitor or rule out the same for all resolved SN Ia remnants.Comment: 9 pages, 3 figures, 1 table. Accepted for publication in Ap

    No hot and luminous progenitor for Tycho's supernova

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    Type Ia supernovae have proven vital to our understanding of cosmology, both as standard candles and for their role in galactic chemical evolution; however, their origin remains uncertain. The canonical accretion model implies a hot and luminous progenitor which would ionize the surrounding gas out to a radius of ∼\sim10--100 parsecs for ∼\sim100,000 years after the explosion. Here we report stringent upper limits on the temperature and luminosity of the progenitor of Tycho's supernova (SN 1572), determined using the remnant itself as a probe of its environment. Hot, luminous progenitors that would have produced a greater hydrogen ionization fraction than that measured at the radius of the present remnant (∼\sim3 parsecs) can thus be excluded. This conclusively rules out steadily nuclear-burning white dwarfs (supersoft X-ray sources), as well as disk emission from a Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarf accreting ≳10−8M⊙\gtrsim 10^{-8}M_{\odot}yr−1^{-1} (recurrent novae). The lack of a surrounding Str\"omgren sphere is consistent with the merger of a double white dwarf binary, although other more exotic scenarios may be possible.Comment: 17 pages, 2 figures, including supplementary information. Original accepted manuscript (before copyediting/formatting by Nature Astronomy

    Exploring the Physics of Type Ia Supernovae Through the X-ray Spectra of their Remnants

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    We present the results of an ongoing project to use the X-ray observations of Type Ia Supernova Remnants to constrain the physical processes involved in Type Ia Supernova explosions. We use the Tycho Supernova Remnant (SN 1572) as a benchmark case, comparing its observed spectrum with models for the X-ray emission from the shocked ejecta generated from different kinds of Type Ia explosions. Both the integrated spectrum of Tycho and the spatial distribution of the Fe and Si emission in the remnant are well reproduced by delayed detonation models with stratified ejecta. All the other Type Ia explosion models fail, including well-mixed deflagrations calculated in three dimensions.Comment: 5 pages, 3 figures, to appear in the proceedings of the "Stellar end products" workshop, 13-15 April 2005, Granada, Spain, ed. M.A. Perez-Torres, Vol. 77 (Jan 2006) of MmSA

    Is the metallicity of their hosts a good measure of the metallicity of Type Ia supernovae?

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    The efficient use of Type Ia supernovae (SNIa) for cosmological studies requires knowledge of any parameter that can affect their luminosity in either systematic or statistical ways. Observational samples of SNIa commonly use the metallicity of the host galaxy, Z_host, as an estimator of the supernova progenitor metallicity, Z_Ia, that is one of the primary factors affecting SNIa magnitude. Here, we present a theoretical study of the relationship between Z_Ia and Z_host. We follow the chemical evolution of homogeneous galaxy models together with the evolution of the supernova rates in order to evaluate the metallicity distribution function, MDF(Delta Z), i.e. the probability that the logarithm of the metallicity of a SNIa exploding now differs in less than Delta Z from that of its host. We analyse several model galaxies aimed to represent from active to passive galaxies, including dwarf galaxies prone to experience supernova driven outflows. We analyse the sensitivity of the MDF to uncertain ingredients: IMF, star-formation law, stellar lifetime, stellar yields, and SNIa delay-time distribution. There is a remarkable degree of agreement between the mean Z_Ia in a galaxy and its Z_host when they both are measured as the CNO abundance, especially if the DTD peaks at small time delays, while the average Fe abundance of host and SNIa may differ up to 0.4-0.6 dex in passive galaxies. The dispersion of Z_Ia in active galaxy models is quite small, meaning that Z_host is a quite good estimator of the supernova metallicity. Passive galaxies present a larger dispersion, which is more pronounced in low mass galaxies. We discuss the use of different metallicity indicators: Fe vs. O, and gas-phase metallicity vs. stellar metallicity. The results of the application of our formalism to a galactic catalogue (VESPA) are roughly consistent with our theoretical estimates. (abridged)Comment: 15 pages, 10 figures, 1 table, accepted for MNRA

    A Model Grid for the Spectral Analysis of X-ray Emission in Young Type Ia Supernova Remnants

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    We address a new set of models for the spectral analysis of the X-ray emission from young, ejecta-dominated Type Ia supernova remnants. These models are based on hydrodynamic simulations of the interaction between Type Ia supernova explosion models and the surrounding ambient medium, coupled to self-consistent ionization and electron heating calculations in the shocked supernova ejecta, and the generation of synthetic spectra with an appropriate spectral code. The details are provided elsewhere, but in this paper we concentrate on a specific class of Type Ia explosion models (delayed detonations), commenting on the differences that arise between their synthetic X-ray spectra under a variety of conditions.Comment: Accepted for publication in Advances in Space Research; proceedings of session E1.4 of the 35th COSPAR Scientific Assembly, Paris, July 18-25 2004, 'Young Neutron Stars and Supernova Remnants', edited by C. Rakowski and S. Chatterje

    Typing Supernova Remnants Using X-ray Line Emission Morphologies

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    We present a new observational method to type the explosions of young supernova remnants (SNRs). By measuring the morphology of the Chandra X-ray line emission in seventeen Galactic and Large Magellanic Cloud SNRs with a multipole expansion analysis (using power ratios), we find that the core-collapse SNRs are statistically more asymmetric than the Type Ia SNRs. We show that the two classes of supernovae can be separated naturally using this technique because X-ray line morphologies reflect the distinct explosion mechanisms and structure of the circumstellar material. These findings are consistent with recent spectropolarimetry results showing that core-collapse SNe are intrinsically more asymmetric.Comment: 4 pages, 1 figure, accepted for publication in ApJ
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