231 research outputs found

    Development of Membrane Film Fiber Optic Based Sensors for the Remote Monitoring of the Quality of Surface and Groundwater

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    The objective of this study was the development of chromo- and fluoroionophores and their subsequent use in sensors capable of surface and groundwater monitoring. Several reagents (modified crown ethers and porphyrins) were synthesized based on principles of chemical recognition and used for metal and pH sensing. The modified crown ether reagents include a chromogenic or fluorogenic group. The selectivity of these reagents is controlled by the size of the crown ether ring and the type of the chromogenic or fluorogenic side-arm. In addition, a fluorogenic crown ether was synthesized that incorporates a fluorogenic side-arm and a perfluorinated carbon chain. The later was used to immobilize the fluoroionophore on PTFE membranes, which were placed at the tip of an optical fiber bundle. This configuration led to the development of a divalent ion-selective fiber optic sensor. Finally, cobalt(Il)tetra(p-hydroxyphenyl)porphyrin, [Co(p-OH)TPP] was electropolymerized on the surface of optically transparent electrodes to form membranes composed of the polymerized [Co(p-OH)TPP] chromoionophore. These membrane phases, capable of molecular recognition, were used for the construction of fiber optic sensors

    Methods for Cancer Detection

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    A method is provided for detecting an analyte indicative of a cancer or a metastatic disease condition, which utilizes the ability of the analyte to induce permeability in a barrier. The method includes providing a biosensor having a barrier which is substantially impermeable to an ion, a permeable membrane which is selective for the ion, and a detector capable of detecting the ion. The biosensor is contacted with a sample including at least one of the ion and the analyte, wherein the analyte causes at least a portion of the ion to pass through the barrier and the membrane. Passage of the ion through the barrier and membrane allows detection of the ion, providing indirect detection of the analyte. In one embodiment, the barrier is a cell monolayer, the membrane is selective for potassium, and the analyte is vascular endothelial cell growth factor

    Theoretical models for predicting the effect of bridging group recognition and conjugate substitution on hapten enzyme immunoassay dose-response curves

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    Models for predicting the effect of immunological recognition of the bridge group on the dose-response curves obtained with heterogeneous hapten enzyme immunoassays are presented. Appropriate theoretical treatment shows that the greater affinity of antibodies toward the enzyme-labeled species than for the unlabeled hapten analyte results in assays with limited detection capabilities. This problem is compounded when enzyme conjugates possessing multiple haptens are used. In equilibrium type competitive arrangements, the concentrations of binder and labeled hapten may be optimized to some extent to improve assay performance. However, the results presented show that only when assays are performed in a sequential binding mode using carefully controlled timing of reagent incubations can the detection capabilities of the assays be fully maximized for analyte measurements. Unfortunately, it is also shown that such sequential binding approaches render the assays essentially nonselective. The effect of decreasing the affinity of the binder to the enzyme-labeled hapten relative to the unlabeled analyte by using heterologous conjugates in equilibrium arrangements is shown to improve detection capabilities but also at the expense of reduced selectivity. Suggestions for reagent concentrations and conjugate substitution (degree of conjugation), which provide optimized dose-response curves at a given ED50 value, are also presented as are proposals for using different binders which do not exhibit bridging group recognition.Peer Reviewedhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/26116/1/0000192.pd

    Magnetoelastic sensor for characterizing properties of thin-film/coatings

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    An apparatus for determining elasticity characteristics of a thin-film layer. The apparatus comprises a sensor element having a base magnetostrictive element at least one surface of which is at least partially coated with the thin-film layer. The thin-film layer may be of a variety of materials (having a synthetic and/or bio-component) in a state or form capable of being deposited, manually or otherwise, on the base element surface, such as by way of eye-dropper, melting, dripping, brushing, sputtering, spraying, etching, evaporation, dip-coating, laminating, etc. Among suitable thin-film layers for the sensor element of the invention are fluent bio-substances, thin-film deposits used in manufacturing processes, polymeric coatings, paint, an adhesive, and so on. A receiver, preferably remotely located, is used to measure a plurality of values for magneto-elastic emission intensity of the sensor element in either characterization: (a) the measure of the plurality of values is used to identify a magneto-elastic resonant frequency value for the sensor element; and (b) the measure of the plurality of successive values is done at a preselected magneto-elastic frequency

    Homogeneous enzyme-linked competitive binding assay for biotin based on the avidin-biotin interaction

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    A homogeneous enzyme-linked competitive-binding assay for biotin with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), is described. This assay is based on the interaction between a G6PDH/biotin conjugate with avidin, a natural binder for biotin. In the absence of biotin in the assay mixture, this interaction results in 100% inhibition of the enzyme conjugate. In the presence of biotin, the enzymatic activity of the conjugate is regained in an amount related to the concentration of the vitamin in the sample. Extremely steep, gate-like dose/response curves, attributable to the relative binding affinities of avidin for biotin and the conjugate, are observed. The detection limits of the system vary with the amounts of avidin and enzyme/biotin conjugate used. The method is rapid and sensitive and is evaluated for the direct determination of biotin in vitamin tablets.Peer Reviewedhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/27454/1/0000494.pd

    Membrane-Based Sorbent for Heavy Metal Sequestration

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    A process is provided for making membrane-based sorbents with enhanced binding activity that are particularly useful for heavy metal sequestration. The process includes the step of selectively hydrolyzing a polyacetylated membrane in order to deacetylate a surface layer of said membrane and expose free hydroxyl groups. This is followed by the oxidizing of the hydroxyl groups to aldehyde groups. This is then followed by the attaching of a polycarboxylic acid such as a polyamino acid, polyalkenoic acid or polypeptide to the membrane through the aldehyde groups. Preferably, the hydrolyzing step is completed under alkaline conditions and the oxidizing step is completed using an aqueous solution of sodium periodate

    Preparing and Regenerating a Composite Polymer and Silica-Based Membrane

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    A method for preparing and regenerating a chemically activated or polyamino acid functionalized membrane includes the steps of permeating the silica-based membrane with a solution of silane and a solvent so as to react methoxy groups of the silane with silanol groups of the membrane to incorporate epoxide groups and attaching a polyamino acid to the membrane by reacting a terminal amine group of the polyamino acid with one of the epoxide groups on the membrane. The membrane is regenerated after metal entrapment by utilizing helix-coil properties of polyamino acids

    Silica-Based Membrane Sorbent for Heavy Metal Sequestration

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    An apparatus providing for metal ion/nitrate entrapment comprises a chemically activated, microfiltration, composite polymer and silica-based membrane including a polyamino acid attached thereto through reaction of a terminal amine group of the polyamino acid with the membrane. A method for preparing such a chemically activated or polyamino acid functionalized membrane includes the steps of permeating the silica-based membrane with a solution of silane and a solvent so as to react methoxy groups of the silane with silanol groups of the membrane to incorporate epoxide groups and attaching a polyamino acid to the membrane by reacting a terminal amine group of the polyamino acid with one of the epoxide groups on the membrane

    Method of Preparing a Composite Polymer and Silica-Based Membrane

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    A method for preparing a chemically activated or polyamino acid functionalized membrane includes the steps of permeating a silica-based membrane with a solution of silane and a solvent so as to react methoxy groups of the silane with silanol groups of the membrane to incorporate epoxide groups and attaching a polyamino acid to the membrane by reacting a terminal amine group of the polyamino acid with one of the epoxide groups on the membrane

    Stimuli-Responsive Hydrogel Microdomes Integrated with Genetically Engineered Proteins for High-Throughput Screening of Pharmaceuticals

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    A hydrogel microdome that can swell in response to a stimuli or target molecule is formed by polymerizing a mixture comprising a monomer capable of forming a hydrogel with a biopolymer. An array of hydrogel microdomes can be formed on a substrate by microspotting the mixture and polymerizing. The array can be used for high-throughput screening of analytes as well as for use as an actuator and biosensor using the swelling property of the hydrogel
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