3,430 research outputs found

    Slots in the City: A Critical Look at the Balance of Decision-Making Power in Gaming Legislation

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    This Note focuses on the ability of local governmental bodies and local actors to become involved when a state seeks to introduce casino-based gaming or license additional casino properties. Traditionally, states retain the power to make most gaming-related decisions, sometimes only allowing simple yes or no voter referenda. This note argues that an increased role for local actors in bringing gaming to cities will best protect the interests of the people most affected by casinos. Part I provides a brief background of gambling in America and the key aspects of gaming-enabling legislation in various states. Part II discusses local government law and theory. Part III examines aspects of casino gambling that highlight the importance of local involvement in the legislative and regulatory process. It also discusses case studies of commercial casino development in Philadelphia and Detroit. Part IV compares the introduction of gaming in the two cities to better understand the successful introduction of casinos in Detroit. The Note concludes that the capability for local actors to help guide the healthy development of gambling necessarily requires that state enabling legislation reserves a role for local governments and voters in the process of introducing and licensing gaming operations in their municipality

    Slots in the City: A Critical Look at the Balance of Decision-Making Power in Gaming Legislation

    Get PDF
    This Note focuses on the ability of local governmental bodies and local actors to become involved when a state seeks to introduce casino-based gaming or license additional casino properties. Traditionally, states retain the power to make most gaming-related decisions, sometimes only allowing simple yes or no voter referenda. This note argues that an increased role for local actors in bringing gaming to cities will best protect the interests of the people most affected by casinos. Part I provides a brief background of gambling in America and the key aspects of gaming-enabling legislation in various states. Part II discusses local government law and theory. Part III examines aspects of casino gambling that highlight the importance of local involvement in the legislative and regulatory process. It also discusses case studies of commercial casino development in Philadelphia and Detroit. Part IV compares the introduction of gaming in the two cities to better understand the successful introduction of casinos in Detroit. The Note concludes that the capability for local actors to help guide the healthy development of gambling necessarily requires that state enabling legislation reserves a role for local governments and voters in the process of introducing and licensing gaming operations in their municipality

    Thermal exchange effects on steel thixoforming processes

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    Steel thixoforging is an innovative semi-solid forming process. It allows the manufacturing of complex parts and minimises the forming load. This work aims to identify and characterise the main feature zones of a thixoforging part. The material flow and the forging load are dependent on the thixoforging speed, the tool temperature and the initial temperature of the slug. The data are obtained for C38 thixoforging steel. A specific extrusion tool was designed that integrates the heating of the tool and the slug. This tool was set up on a high-speed hydraulic press. This work highlights the effects of heat exchange on the microstructure, the internal flow and the mechanical characteristics of thixoforging material. These heat exchanges depend primarily on the working speed and tool temperature. The internal flow is composed of three distinct zones. Among them, only semisolid zone is observed during working. The microstructures of thixoforming C38 steel consist of ferrite, pearlite and bainite

    The Influence of Environmental NGOs in the Global Society

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    This paper assesses the over impact and influence of environmental NGO networks from the local to the global setting. Networks of various types of NGOs have developed and emerged in recent decades as significant actors in global politics. This paper looks at the impact these networks hold in both political and societal arenas such as the business practices of large multinational corporations. A qualitative analysis of several cases involving NGOs is conducted in a variety of arenas, assessing what actions or strategies were most affective, attempting to determine their overall effectiveness in promoting environmentally sustainable policies and practices while simultaneously working to establish a Culture of Peace. Research combines a review of existing literature along with personal observations working with a grassroots environmental NGO in Indianapolis

    INFLUENCE OF EXPERIMENTAL CONDITIONS ON MATERIAL RESPONSE DURING THIXOEXTRUSION PROCESS

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    The behavior of aluminum alloy to deformation is strongly influenced by the morphology of the microstructure. This paper illustrates several experimental research activities for thixoextrusion of 7075 aluminum alloy being carried out within the “Arts et MĂ©tiers ParisTech” of METZ. Inductive re-heating of the aluminum billet is the method to enable the desired liquid fraction for thixoextrusion. Experimental results show that after induction reheating the solid particles obtained has globular shape and homogeneous dimension. A sample obtained from a direct extruded bar is inserted in a die and thixoextruded after reheating in semisolid state. In laboratory experiments the temperature it was directly controlled applying thermocouples for temperature measurements in the slug and also in the die. The experimental tests were made for two different working speeds on the mechanical eccentric press. The preliminary experimental results on extrusion load and microstructure evolution of the product are reported. These results will contribute to implementing the specific boundary condition of the manufacturing process to the future numerical analysis of the current project activities

    Forging process control: Influence of key parameters variation on product specifications deviations

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    Process control in forging industry is essential to ensure a better quality of the product with a lower cost at the end of the manufacturing process. To control the process, a number of key parameters must be monitored to prevent product or forging plan deviations. This paper will illustrate how a variation in a process parameter can create product specifications deviations and how key parameters influence product final state. The illustration work is done on a part obtained via hot forging. An analysis is made on product parameters such as geometry, by varying the key process parameter values previously determined from a created methodology. This later is represented as a decision support system that connects product specifications (geometry, absence of defects
) or other forging specifications (tool wear, involved energy...) to the process parameters

    Microstructure Evolution and Material Flow of Steel in Semi-solid Forming Process

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    The present study aims to identify and characterize the development of microstructure and deformation characteristics of steel grades in semi-solid state which is affected by the change in morphologies of microstructure at high temperature. Thixoextrusion tests with different combinations of forming temperature and forming speed were performed. It was identified that several process parameters, such as initial billet and die temperatures or forming speed, affect thermal exchanges thereby influencing the microstructure evolution and material flow. Furthermore, 2D and 3D microstructure characterization was performed on the same sample which was partial remelted and quenched. Reconstructed 3D images were compared with the ones obtained with a Scanning Electron Microscope and an Energy Dispersive Spectrometry system. The good agreement between 2D SEM observations and 3D X-ray microtomography results makes these two techniques efficient to characterize steels in the semi-solid state

    Impact of experimental conditions on material response during forming of steel in semi-solid state

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    Semi-solid forming is an effective near-net-shape forming process to produce components with complex geometry and in fewer forming steps. It benefits from the complex thixotropic behaviour of semi-solids. However, the consequences of such behaviour on the flow during thixoforming, is still neither completely characterized and nor fully understood, especially for high melting point alloys. The study described in this paper investigates thixoextrusion for C38 low carbon steel material using dies at temperatures much lower than the slug temperature. Four different process parameters were studied: the initial slug temperature, the die temperature, the ram speed and the presence of a ceramic layer at the tool/material interface. The extruded parts were found to have an exact shape and a good surface state only if the temperature was below a certain value. This critical temperature is not an intrinsic material property since its value depends on die temperature and the presence of the Ceraspray©layer. Two kinds of flow were highlighted: a homogeneous flow controlled by the behaviour of the solid skeleton characterized by a positive strain rate sensitivity, and a non homogeneous flow (macro liquid/solid phase separation) dominated by the flow of the free liquid. With decreasing ram speed, heat losses increase so that the overall consistency of the material improves, leading to apparent negative strain rate sensitivity. Finally, some ways to optimise thixoforming are proposed

    Effects Of Thermal Exchange On Material Flow During Steel Thixoextrusion Process

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    Semi-solid processing is an innovative technology for near net-shape production of components, where the metallic alloys are processed in the semi-solid state. Taking advantage of the thixotropic behavior of alloys in the semi-solid state, significant progress has been made in semi-solid processing. However, the consequences of such behavior on the flow during thixoforming are still not completely understood. To explore and better understand the influence of the different parameters on material flow during thixoextrusion process, thixoextrusion experiments were performed using the low carbon steel C38. The billet was partially melted at high solid fraction. Effects of various process parameters including the initial billet temperature, the temperature of die, the punch speed during process and the presence of a Ceraspray layer at the interface of tool and billet were investigated through experiments and simulation. After analyzing the results thus obtained, it was identified that the aforementioned parameters mainly affect thermal exchanges between die and part. The Ceraspray layer not only plays a lubricant role, but also acts as a thermal barrier at the interface of tool and billet. Furthermore, the thermal effects can affect the material flow which is composed of various distinct zones
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