1,498 research outputs found

    Representing and Redefining Specialised Knowledge: Medical Discourse

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    This volume brings together five selected papers on medical discourse which show how specialised medical corpora provide a framework that helps those engaging with medical discourse to determine how the everyday and the specialised combine to shape the discourse of medical professionals and non-medical communities in relation to both long and short-term factors. The papers contribute, in an exemplary way, to illustrating the shifting boundaries in today’s society between the two major poles making up the medical discourse cline: healthcare discourse at the one end, which records the demand for personalised therapies and individual medical services; and clinical discourse the other, which documents research into society’s collective medical needs

    Cosmology with velocity dispersion counts: an alternative to measuring cluster halo masses

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    The evolution of galaxy cluster counts is a powerful probe of several fundamental cosmological parameters. A number of recent studies using this probe have claimed tension with the cosmology preferred by the analysis of the Planck primary CMB data, in the sense that there are fewer clusters observed than predicted based on the primary CMB cosmology. One possible resolution to this problem is systematic errors in the absolute halo mass calibration in cluster studies, which is required to convert the standard theoretical prediction (the halo mass function) into counts as a function of the observable (e.g., X-ray luminosity, Sunyaev-Zel'dovich flux, optical richness). Here we propose an alternative strategy, which is to directly compare predicted and observed cluster counts as a function of the one-dimensional velocity dispersion of the cluster galaxies. We argue that the velocity dispersion of groups/clusters can be theoretically predicted as robustly as mass but, unlike mass, it can also be directly observed, thus circumventing the main systematic bias in traditional cluster counts studies. With the aid of the BAHAMAS suite of cosmological hydrodynamical simulations, we demonstrate the potential of the velocity dispersion counts for discriminating even similar Λ\LambdaCDM models. These predictions can be compared with the results from existing redshift surveys such as the highly-complete Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey, and upcoming wide-field spectroscopic surveys such as the Wide Area Vista Extragalactic Survey (WAVES) and the Dark Energy Survey Instrument (DESI).Comment: 15 pages, 13 figures. Accepted for publication in MNRAS. New section on cosmological forecasts adde

    Femicide Fatal Risk Factors: A Last Decade Comparison between Italian Victims of Femicide by Age Groups

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    Femicide is a wide-spread lethal form of violence against women. Despite its diffusion, to date, very few studies analyzed possible victims' age differences in regard to fatal risk factors for femicide. To this aim, we carried out archive research on Italian femicide cases in the last decade, by comparing prior types of violence suffered and motives for femicide, which are considered crucial fatal risk factors for femicide, across adolescent/young (15-24 years), adults (25-64 years) and older women (65-93 years). From 2010 to 2019 we found 1207 female victims. Characteristics of victims, perpetrators, and their relationship were consistent with those found by international studies and underlined that the majority of femicides were perpetrated by an intimate partner. The results regarding fatal risk factors comparisons across age groups showed the existence of significant differences regarding both types of violence suffered prior to femicide and motives for femicide. The results are discussed in terms of policy implication and intervention

    The Tully-Fisher Relation for 25,000 SDSS Galaxies as Function of Environment

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    We construct Tully-Fisher relationships (TFRs) in the uu, gg, rr, ii and zz bands and stellar mass TFRs (smTFRs) for a sample of 25,69825,698 late spiral type galaxies (with 0.045<z<0.0850.045<z<0.085) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and study the effects of environment on the relation. We use SDSS-measured Balmer emission line widths, vFWHMv_{\rm FWHM}, as a proxy for disc circular velocity, vcircv_{\rm circ}. A priori it is not clear whether we can construct accurate TFRs given the small 3"3" diameter of the fibres used for SDSS spectroscopic measurements. However, we show by modelling the Hα\alpha emission profile as observed through a 3"3" aperture that for galaxies at appropriate redshifts (z>0.045z>0.045) the fibres sample enough of the disc to obtain a linear relationship between vFWHMv_{\rm FWHM} and vcircv_{\rm circ}, allowing us to obtain a TFR and to investigate dependence on other variables. We also develop a methodology for distinguishing between astrophysical and sample bias in the fibre TFR trends. We observe the well-known steepening of the TFR in redder bands in our sample. We divide the sample of galaxies into four equal groups using projected neighbour density (Σ\Sigma) quartiles and find no significant dependence on environment, extending previous work to a wider range of environments and a much larger sample. Having demonstrated that we can construct SDSS-based TFRs is very useful for future applications because of the large sample size available.Comment: accepted for publication in MNRAS. 15 pages, 12 figure

    Observations on an apparent population extension of Glossina tachinoides Westwood in Southern Ivory Coast

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    Recent entomological surveys in the Bouaflé sleeping sickness focus of the Ivory Coast have revealed that Glossina tachinoides is considerably more widely distributed than hitherto. Some flies were found in the fringing riverine forests of tributaries of the River Marahoué. However, the greatest concentrations were found in villages and settlements where domestic pigs were kept. The southern limit of G. tachinoides now appears to lie one half degree of latitude further south than that reported by earlier investigators. The authors think there is good evidence that G. tachinoides is extending its range eastwards and southwards through and beyond the Bouaflé area, and the epidemiological significance of this is briefly discusse
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