1,019 research outputs found

    The Structure of Close Binaries in Two Dimensions

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    The structure and evolution of close binary stars has been studied using the two-dimensional (2D) stellar structure algorithm developed by Deupree (1995). We have calculated a series of solar composition stellar evolution sequences of binary models, where the mass of the 2D model is 8Msun with a point-mass 5Msun companion. We have also studied the structure of the companion in 2D, by considering the zero-age main-sequence (ZAMS) structure of a 5Msun model with an 8Msun point-mass companion. In all cases the binary orbit was assumed to be circular and co-rotating with the rotation rate of the stars. We considered binary models with three different initial separations, a = 10, 14 and 20Rsun. These models were evolved through central hydrogen burning or until the more massive star expanded to fill its critical potential surface or Roche lobe. The calculations show that evolution of the deep interior quantities is only slightly modified from those of single star evolution. Describing the model surface as a Roche equipotential is also satisfactory until very close to the time of Roche lobe overflow, when the self gravity of the model about to lose mass develops a noticeable aspherical component and the surface time scale becomes sufficiently short that it is conceivable that the actual surface is not an equipotential.Comment: 22 pages, 10 figures, accepted by Ap

    Accretion flows: the Role of the Outer Boundary Condition

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    We investigate the influences of the outer boundary conditions(OBCs) on the structure of an optically thin accretion flow. We find that OBC plays an important role in determining the topological structure and the profiles of the surface density and temperature of the solution, therefore it should be regarded as a new parameter in the accretion disk model.Comment: 9 pages, 2 figures, to appear in ApJ Letters, Vol. 521, L5


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    Geometrical optics provides an excellent description for quasar images crossing caustics which are formed by gravitational microlensing of objects like Q2237+0305. Within this approximation the source size can be estimated from the maximum magnification reached at caustic crossings. We evaluate the limitations imposed by diffraction on caustics using the formalism developed by Ulmer & Goodman (1995). Close to a caustic a new characteristic length, smaller that the Fresnel length, enters the problem, limiting the angular resolution to about 0.2 pico arcsecond, or equivalently about 3*10^9 cm at the source. To achieve this resolution the brightness must be monitored at time intervals of a few seconds. If a significant fraction of quasar luminosity comes from sources smaller than those limits then interference effects would make the observed intensity oscillate, in a close analogy with a two slit experiment. The characteristic period of such oscillations is expected to be about one tenth of a minute. If such oscillations are detected then photometry carried out at a single site may permit the determination of the caustic transverse velocity, and therefore may permit a direct conversion of the time units of brightness variations to the linear units at the source. Subject headings: Gravitational lensing - dark matter - quasars: structure -quasars: Q2237+0305Comment: 10 pages, plain TEX file, no figures. Submitted to ApJ postscript available at by anonymous ftp at ftp://astro.princeton.edu/library/preprint/pop615.ps.

    Gamma-ray burst beaming: a universal configuration with a standard energy reservoir?

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    We consider a gamma-ray burst (GRB) model based on an anisotropic fireball with an axisymmetric power-law distribution of the energy per solid angle with index -k, and allow for the observer's viewing direction being at an arbitrary angle with respect to the jet axis. This model can reproduce the key features expected from the conventional on-axis uniform jet models, with the novelty that the achromatic break time in the broadband afterglow lightcurves corresponds to the epoch when the relativistic beaming angle is equal to the viewing angle rather than to the jet half opening angle. If all the GRB fireballs have such a similar energy distribution form with 1.5 < k < (or \sim) 2, GRBs may be modeled by a quasi-universal beaming configuration, and an approximately standard energy reservoir. The conclusion also holds for some other forms of angular energy distributions, such as the Gaussian function.Comment: Slightly expanded version accepted for publication in Ap

    Neutrino oscillations and gamma-ray bursts

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    If the ordinary neutrinos oscillate into a sterile flavor in a manner consistent with the Super-Kamiokande data on the zenith-angle dependence of atmospheric mu-neutrino flux, an energy sufficient to power a typical cosmic gamma-ray burst (GRB) (about 10^{52} erg) can be carried by sterile neutrinos away from the source and deposited in a region relatively free of baryons. Hence, ultra-relativistic bulk motion (required by the theory of and observations of GRBs and their afterglows) can easily be achieved in the vicinity of plausible sources of GRBs. Oscillations between sterile and ordinary neutrinos would thus provide a solution to the ``baryon-loading problem'' in the theory of GRBs

    A novel method to construct stationary solutions of the Vlasov-Maxwell system : the relativistic case

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    A method to derive stationary solutions of the relativistic Vlasov-Maxwell system is explored. In the non-relativistic case, a method using the Hermite polynomial series to describe the deviation from the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution is found to be successful in deriving a few stationary solutions including two dimensional one. Instead of the Hermite polynomial series, two special orthogonal polynomial series, which are appropriate to expand the deviation from the Maxwell-J\"uttner distribution, are introduced in this paper. By applying this method, a new two-dimensional equilibrium is derived, which may provide an initial setup for investigations of three-dimensional relativistic collisionless reconnection of magnetic fields.Comment: 15pages, 2 figures, to appear in Phys. Plasma