10,738 research outputs found

    Spinoza today: the current state of Spinoza scholarship

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    What I plan to do in this paper is to provide a survey of the ways in which Spinoza’s philosophy has been deployed in relation to early modern thought, in the history of ideas and in a number of different domains of contemporary philosophy, and to offer an account of how some of this research has developed. The past decade of research in Spinoza studies has been characterized by a number of tendencies; however, it is possible to identify four main domains that characterize these different lines of research: studies of Spinoza’s individual works, of its problematic concepts, from the point of view of the history of ideas, and comparative studies of Spinoza’s ideas

    The 'what' and 'how' of learning in design, invited paper

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    Previous experiences hold a wealth of knowledge which we often take for granted and use unknowingly through our every day working lives. In design, those experiences can play a crucial role in the success or failure of a design project, having a great deal of influence on the quality, cost and development time of a product. But how can we empower computer based design systems to acquire this knowledge? How would we use such systems to support design? This paper outlines some of the work which has been carried out in applying and developing Machine Learning techniques to support the design activity; particularly in utilising previous designs and learning the design process

    Uncertainty in projections of streamflow changes due to climate change in California

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    Understanding the uncertainty in the projected impacts of climate change on hydrology will help decision-makers interpret the confidence in different projected future hydrologic impacts. We focus on California, which is vulnerable to hydrologic impacts of climate change. We statistically bias correct and downscale temperature and precipitation projections from 10 GCMs participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project. These GCM simulations include a control period (unchanging CO2 and other forcing) and perturbed period (1%/year CO2 increase). We force a hydrologic model with the downscaled GCM data to generate streamflow at strategic points. While the different GCMs predict significantly different regional climate responses to increasing atmospheric CO2, hydrological responses are robust across models: decreases in summer low flows and increases in winter flows, and a shift of flow to earlier in the year. Summer flow decreases become consistent across models at lower levels of greenhouse gases than increases in winter flows do

    Learning and structural change in macroeconomic data

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    We include learning in a standard equilibrium business cycle model with explicit growth. We use the model to study how the economy's agents could learn in real time about the important trend-changing events of the postwar era in the U.S., such as the productivity slowdown, increased labor force participation by women, and the "new economy" of the 1990s. We find that a large fraction of the observed variance of output relative to trend can be attributed to structural change in our model. However, we also find that the addition of learning and occasional structural breaks to the standard and widely-used growth model results in a balanced growth puzzle, as our approach cannot completely account for observed trends in U.S. aggregate consumption and investment. Finally, we argue that a model-consistent detrending approach, such as the one we suggest here, is necessary if the goal is to obtain an accurate assessment of an equilibrium business cycle model.Business cycles ; Economic development

    Modularity in support of design for re-use

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    We explore the structuring principle of modularity with the objective of analysing its current ability to meet the requirements of a 're-use' centred approach to design. We aim to highlight the correlation's between modular design and 're-use', and argue that it has the potential to aid the little-supported process of 'design-for-re-use'. In fulfilment of this objective we not only identify the requirements of 'design-for-re-use', but also propose how modular design principles can be extended to support 'design-for-re-use'

    A formalism for coupled design learning activities

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    This paper presents a formalism to represent the inextricable link that exists between design and learning. It provides an approach to study and analyse the complex relationships that may exist between design and learning. It suggests that design and learning are linked at the knowledge level (epistemic link), in a temporal manner and in a purposeful manner through the design and learning goal

    Re-using knowledge : why, what and where

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    Previously the 're-use' focus has centred on specific and/or standard parts, more recently however, [standard components] are being developed...to enable both the re-use of the part and the experience associated with that part'. This notion is further extended by Finger who states that 'designers may re-use a prior design in it's entirety,...may re-use an existing shape for a different function, or may re-use a feature from another design'. Reinforcing this notion we currently consider re-use to reflect the utilisation of any knowledge gained from a design activity and not just past designs of artefacts. Our research concerns the improvement of formal 're-use' support and as such we have identified a need to gain a better understanding of how design knowledge can be utilised to support 're-use'. Thus, we discuss the requirements of successful 're-use' and attempt to ascertain within this skeleton: what knowledge can be re-used; how to maximise its' applicability; and where and when it can be utilised in new design

    Knowledge transformers : a link between learning and creativity

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    The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether knowledge transformers which are featured in the learning process, are also present in the creative process. This is achieved by reviewing models and theories of creativity and identifying the existence of the knowledge transformers. The investigation shows that there is some evidence to show that the creative process can be explained through knowledge transformers. Hence, it is suggested that one of links between learning and creativity is through the knowledge transformers

    Gravity-driven draining of a thin rivulet with constant width down a slowly varying substrate

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    The locally unidirectional gravity-driven draining of a thin rivulet with constant width but slowly varying contact angle down a slowly varying substrate is considered. Specifically, the flow of a rivulet in the azimuthal direction from the top to the bottom of a large horizontal cylinder is investigated. In particular, it is shown that, despite behaving the same locally, this flow has qualitatively different global behaviour from that of a rivulet with constant contact angle but slowly varying width. For example, whereas in the case of constant contact angle there is always a rivulet that runs all the way from the top to the bottom of the cylinder, in the case of constant width this is possible only for sufficiently narrow rivulets. Wider rivulets with constant width are possible only between the top of the cylinder and a critical azimuthal angle on the lower half of the cylinder. Assuming that the contact lines de-pin at this critical angle (where the contact angle is zero) the rivulet runs from the critical angle to the bottom of the cylinder with zero contact angle, monotonically decreasing width and monotonically increasing maximum thickness. The total mass of fluid on the cylinder is found to be a monotonically increasing function of the value of the constant width
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