1,540 research outputs found

    Research Program towards Observation of Neutrino-Nucleus Coherent Scattering

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    The article describes the research program pursued by the TEXONO Collaboration towards an experiment to observe coherent scattering between neutrinos and the nucleus at the power reactor. The motivations of studying this process are surveyed. In particular, a threshold of 100-200 eV has been achieved with an ultra-low-energy germanium detector prototype. This detection capability at low energy can also be adapted to conduct searches of Cold Dark Matter in the low-mass region as well as to enhance the sensitivities in the study of neutrino magnetic moments.Comment: 5 pages, 8 figures ; Proceedings of TAUP-2005 Workshop, Spain, 2005. Updated on 2006/9/15 for Proceedings of Neutrino-2006 Conference, Santa Fe, 200

    Is attending a mental process?

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    The nature of attention has been the topic of a lively research programme in psychology for over a century. But there is widespread agreement that none of the theories on offer manage to fully capture the nature of attention. Recently, philosophers have become interested in the debate again after a prolonged period of neglect. This paper contributes to the project of explaining the nature of attention. It starts off by critically examining Christopher Mole’s prominent “adverbial” account of attention, which traces the failure of extant psychological theories to their assumption that attending is a kind of process. It then defends an alternative, process-based view of the metaphysics of attention, on which attention is understood as an activity and not, as psychologists seem to implicitly assume, an accomplishment. The entrenched distinction between accomplishments and activities is shown to shed new light on the metaphysics of attention. It also provides a novel diagnosis of the empirical state of play

    Dried fruits, nuts, and cancer risk and survival: a review of the evidence and future research directions

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    Dried fruits and nuts contain high amounts of nutrients and phytochemicals—all of which may have anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties. This narrative review summarizes the evidence for dried fruits and nuts and cancer incidence, mortality, and survival and their potential anticancer properties. The evidence for dried fruits in cancer outcomes is limited, but existing studies have suggested an inverse relationship between total dried fruit consumption and cancer risk. A higher consumption of nuts has been associated with a reduced risk of several site-specific cancers in prospective cohort studies, including cancers of the colon, lung, and pancreas, with relative risks per 5 g/day increment equal to 0.75 (95% CI 0.60, 0.94), 0.97 (95% CI 0.95, 0.98), and 0.94 (95% CI 0.89, 0.99), respectively. A daily intake of total nuts of 28 g/day has also been associated with a 21% reduction in the rate of cancer mortality. There is also some evidence that frequent nut consumption is associated with improved survival outcomes among patients with colorectal, breast, and prostate cancer; however, further studies are needed. Future research directions include the investigation of additional cancer types, including rare types of cancer. For cancer prognosis, additional studies with pre- and postdiagnosis dietary assessment are warranted

    Superconducting Superstructure for the TESLA Collider

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    We discuss the new layout of a cavity chain (superstructure) allowing, we hope, significant cost reduction of the RF system of both linacs of the TESLA linear collider. The proposed scheme increases the fill factor and thus makes an effective gradient of an accelerator higher. We present mainly computations we have performed up to now and which encouraged us to order the copper model of the scheme, still keeping in mind that experiments with a beam will be necessary to prove if the proposed solution can be used for the acceleration.Comment: 11 page

    Effets de la Fertilisation à Base de la Biomasse du Sida cordifolia L. sur les Performances Agronomiques et la Rentabilité Économique de la Tomate (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.) en Culture Irriguée

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    L’utilisation démesurée des engrais minéraux et produits phytosanitaires en maraichage causent des sérieux problèmes sanitaires et environnementaux. Une étude a été conduite durant deux campagnes (2017 et 2018) à la station piscicole de Mollo située à environ 30 km au sud-est de Niamey sur l’incorporation de la biomasse du Sida cordifolia (BSC) comme fertilisant pour la culture de la tomate. L’objectif est d’évaluer les effets de la fertilisation à base de la BSC sur la production et la rentabilité de la tomate Roma VF en culture irriguée. Six traitements y compris le témoin : T0=0 t. ha1 ; T1=20 t. ha-1 de la fumure organique ; T2=20 t. ha-1 ; T3=30 t. ha-1 ; T4=40 t. ha-1 et T5=50 t. ha-1 de la BSC ont été répartis dans un dispositif en 4 blocs complètement randomisés. La BSC a été incorporée dans le sol 2 semaines avant le repiquage. Les éléments physico chimiques (N, P, K, pH, C, C/N) du sol ont été déterminés avant et après les essais. Les données collectées ont été soumises à une ANOVA au seuil de 5%. La rentabilité économique des traitements a été déterminée à travers le rapport valeur sur coût (RVC). Lesrésultats ont montré une amélioration de teneurs des éléments du sol après les deux campagnes. Les traitements ont influencé la hauteur de plants, la date de 50% floraison ainsi que le rendement. En 2017, le rendement le plus élevé a été obtenu au niveau du traitement T4 (24,3 t. ha-1) et le témoin absolu (T0) le plus faible avec 10,02 t. ha-1. Pour la campagne 2018, les valeurs du rendement varient de 13,82 t. ha-1 (T0) à 33,68 t. ha-1 (T4). Des variabilités significatives de RVC entre les traitements et les années (P<0,05) ont été obtenues. Les résultats de deux campagnes montrent que le traitement T3 (30 t. ha-1 de la BSC) a toujours était le plus rentable que les autres traitements. Cette étude est d’autant plus intéressante que l’adoption de la fertilisation à base de la biomasse du Sida cordifolia pourrait permettre à la fois d’augmenter durablement la production de la tomate et la réduction de la prolifération du Sida cordifolia L. dans le terroir. The excessive use of mineral fertilizers and plant protection products in market gardening is causing serious health and environmental problems. A study was conducted during two campaigns (2017 and 2018) at the Molli Mollo fish farm located about 30 km southeast of Niamey on the incorporation of the biomass of Sida cordifolia (BSC) as a fertilizer for tomato cultivation. The objective is to assess the effects of BSC fertilization on the production and profitability of the Roma VF tomato in irrigated crops. Six treatments including the control: T0=0 t. ha-1; T1=20 t. ha-1 of organic manure; T2=20 t. ha-1; T3=30 t. ha-1; T4=40 t. ha-1 and T5=50 t. ha-1 of the BSC were distributed in a fully randomized 4-block system. The BSC was incorporated into the soil 2 weeks before the tomato was transplanted. The physicochemical elements (N, P, K, pH, C, C/N) of the soil were determined before and after the tests. The data collected were submitted to an ANOVA at the 5% threshold. The economic profitability of the treatments was determined through the value-to-cost ratio (VCR). The results showed an improvement in soil content after both campaigns. Treatments influenced plant height, 50% flowering date and yield. In 2017, the highest performance was achieved at the T4 treatment level (24.3 t. ha-1) and the lowest absolute control (T0) at 10.02 t. ha-1. For the 2018 campaign, yield values range from 13.82 t. ha-1 (T0) to 33.68 t. ha-1 (T4). Significant variabilities in VCR between treatments and years (P0.05) were obtained. The results of two campaigns show that the T3 treatment (30 t. ha-1 of the BSC) was always the most profitable than the other treatments. This study is all the more interesting because the adoption of fertilization based on the biomass of Sida cordifolia could allow both the sustainable increase of tomato production and the reduction of the proliferation of Sida cordifolia L. in the terroir

    Self-reported chronic kidney disease and the risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality: Outcome-wide association study of 54 causes of death in the National Health Interview Survey

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    Background: A diagnosis of chronic kidney disease has been strongly associated with cardiovascular disease and mortality in a number of studies, but the association with specific causes of death has not been assessed in detail. We analysed the association between chronic kidney disease and all-cause mortality and 54 causes of death in the National Health Interview Survey, a prospective study of 210,748 US adults. Methods: We used multivariable Cox regression models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for all-cause and cause-specific mortality associated with self-reported chronic kidney disease. Men and women aged 18–84 years were recruited between 1997 and 2004 and followed up for mortality through December 31, 2006. Results: During an average of 6 years follow-up, 9564 deaths occurred. A history of chronic kidney disease vs. no chronic kidney disease was associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality (HR = 2.69, 95% CI: 2.38–3.04), and mortality from septicemia (5.65, 2.84–11.25), viral hepatitis (10.67, 2.43–46.95), other infectious parasitic diseases (10.58, 3.59–31.21), total cancer (1.48, 1.05–2.09), lung cancer (1.94, 1.10–3.44), kidney cancer (4.74, 1.81–12.41), diabetes mellitus (8.57, 5.60–13.11), circulatory disease overall (3.36, 2.70–4.18) and 11 specific circulatory diseases with the strongest associations observed for primary hypertension/renal disease (13.60, 6.42–28.84), hypertensive heart/renal disease (10.72, 2.47–46.49), and other diseases of circulatory system (7.36, 3.22–16.81). Elevated risk was also observed for alcoholic liver disease (5.63, 1.90–16.66), other chronic liver disease (4.41, 1.74–11.17), kidney failure (13.07, 8.23–20.77), and five other causes of death. Conclusions: A history of chronic kidney disease was associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality and 27 out of 54 causes of death. Further studies are needed to clarify associations with less common causes of death

    Using geographic information systems for radon exposure assessment in dwellings in the Oslo region, Norway

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    Radon exposures were assigned to each residential address in the Oslo region using a geographic information system (GIS) that included indoor radon measurements. The results will be used in an epidemiologic study regarding leukemia and brain cancer. The model is based on 6% of measured residential buildings. High density of indoor radon measurements allowed us to develop a buffer model where indoor radon measurements found around each dwelling were used to assign a radon value for homes lacking radon measurement. <br><br> Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were used to study the agreement between radon values from the buffer method, from indoor radon values of measured houses, and from a regression model constructed with radiometric data (<i>e</i><sub>Th</sub>, <i>e</i><sub>U</sub>) and bedrock geology. We obtained good agreement for both comparisons with ICC values between 0.54 and 0.68. <br><br> GIS offers a useful variety of tools to study the indoor-radon exposure assessment. By using the buffer method it is more likely that geological conditions are similar within the buffer and this may take more into account the variation of radon over short distances. It is also probable that short-distance-scale correlation patterns express similarities in building styles and living habits. Although the method has certain limitations, we regard it as acceptable for use in epidemiological studies

    Reduced Tillage and Intercropping as a Means to Increase Yield and Financial Return in the Drylands of Tigray, northern Ethiopia: A Case Study under Rainfed and Irrigation Conditions

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    Intensive tillage is a major sustainability concern in cereal dominated cropping systems in the drylands of Tigray, Ethiopia. Hence, on-farm trials were conducted to investigate the yield and economic advantage of reduced tillage and intercropping for two seasons. A factorial experiment in a complete randomized block design was carried out at Adigudom located in Hintalo-Wajirat district in South-Eastern Tigray in 2014 (rain-fed) and 2015 (irrigated). The experiment consisted of four tillage frequencies (zero, one, two and four) and three types of cropping systems (sole maize, sole soybean and maize-soybean intercropping) in three/four replications. Maize, variety “Melkassa 2”, and soybean, variety “Awassa 91” were used. Grain and biomass yields, and harvest index of both crops were analysed. Yield advantage of intercropping was evaluated using land equivalent ratio (LER) and partial budget analysis was used for the financial evaluation. The grain and biomass yields of both crops were significantly increased (p&lt;0.05) as the tillage frequencies increased from zero to four in both seasons but the frequent tillage with sole cropping was not economically viable as the two times tillage with maize-soybean intercropping gave 126% greater net benefit compared to the four times tillage sole maize, which is practiced by farmers in the study area. The net benefit was strongly influenced by the main effects of tillage and intercropping in both seasons (p&lt;0.001) and by their interaction in 2014 (p&lt;0.05). Significantly higher LER (1.87-2.12) was recorded from maize-soybean intercropping over sole cropping in all the tillages and both seasons. Hence, two alternative options are suggested that farmers could apply in the drylands of Tigray: (i) keeping the sole cropping culture of maize production, and reducing number of tillages from 4 to 2 that would give 374%and 705% Marginal Rate of Return (MRR), respectively, under the rainfed and irrigated conditions compared to zero tillage sole maize; or (ii) intercropping maize with soybean and reducing tillage frequency from 4to 2 that would give 608% and 585% MRR in the respective growing seasons, compared to zero tillage maize-soybean intercropping. Taking these results into account, two times tillage combined with maize-soybean intercropping can be a good option in dryland areas of Tigray to achieve higher total intercrop yield at a low cost and larger LER. Moreover, reduced tillage can minimize soil degradation and benefit farmers with poor access to draft power or female-headed households constrained with labour for ploughing.Keywords: Tillage; Intercropping; Maize; Soybean; Tigray; Ethiopia.Please find erratum for this article here: https://dx.doi.org/10.4314/mejs.v11i1.1

    Diabetes mellitus, prediabetes and the risk of Parkinson’s disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 15 cohort studies with 29.9 million participants and 86,345 cases

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    A diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and prediabetes has been associated with increased risk of Parkinson’s disease (PD) in several studies, but results have not been entirely consistent. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies on diabetes mellitus, prediabetes and the risk of PD to provide an up-to-date assessment of the evidence. PubMed and Embase databases were searched for relevant studies up to 6th of February 2022. Cohort studies reporting adjusted relative risk (RR) estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between diabetes, prediabetes and Parkinson’s disease were included. Summary RRs (95% CIs) were calculated using a random effects model. Fifteen cohort studies (29.9 million participants, 86,345 cases) were included in the meta-analysis. The summary RR (95% CI) of PD for persons with diabetes compared to persons without diabetes was 1.27 (1.20–1.35, I2 = 82%). There was no indication of publication bias, based on Egger’s test (p = 0.41), Begg’s test (p = 0.99), and inspection of the funnel plot. The association was consistent across geographic regions, by sex, and across several other subgroup and sensitivity analyses. There was some suggestion of a stronger association for diabetes patients reporting diabetes complications than for diabetes patients without complications (RR = 1.54, 1.32–1.80 [n = 3] vs. 1.26, 1.16–1.38 [n = 3]), vs. those without diabetes (pheterogeneity=0.18). The summary RR for prediabetes was 1.04 (95% CI: 1.02–1.07, I2 = 0%, n = 2). Our results suggest that patients with diabetes have a 27% increased relative risk of developing PD compared to persons without diabetes, and persons with prediabetes have a 4% increase in RR compared to persons with normal blood glucose. Further studies are warranted to clarify the specific role age of onset or duration of diabetes, diabetic complications, glycaemic level and its long-term variability and management may play in relation to PD risk

    Effect of Organic Manure to Improve Sorghum Productivity in Flood Recession Farming in Yelimane, Western Mali

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    Agriculture is mainly under rain-fed conditions in Mali, while rainfall is very uncertain. Temperatures is increasingly high, which is a major challenge and detrimental to crop growth and development. Therefore, climate risk management in agriculture (rainfed and flood-recession), is among the most important pillars of food security and resilience of agro-ecosystems. The objective of this study was to address flood recession farming system constraints in Yélimané (Kayes) through the implementation of on-farm agronomic trials to improve crops yields, since very few studies were performed and the use of organic matter was new as an agronomic practice in the cropping system. Prior to trials implementation, soils samples were taken and sent to the Soil-Water-Plant Laboratory of Institut d'Economie Rurale (IER) for physico-chemical analyses. The experimental design was a dispersed randomized complete block design with 4 to 6 replications where each farmer was considered as a replication). Soil Physical characteristics (USDA, 1987) were for Gory site clay loam, f Dougoubara site silty and Yaguiné silty clay. Mean organic matter and nitrogen contents in the 3 sites were deficient. Over the 3 years, the treatments receiving manure alone showed a statistically higher yield.(p = 0.001) than the control (+ 47%) which was the farmer practice. The treatment F7 (18 kg ha-1 of NPK + 500 kg ha-1 of organic manure) gave the highest mean grain yield in 2012, 2013 and 2014, while treatment F0 (0 kg ha-1) gave the lowest mean grain yield. Farmers in Yélimané (46%) argued that they didn't experience organic matter in flood. This information is also valuable for the use of chemical fertilizer because they believe that soils have enough rich nutrients (26% of farmers) because of yearly sediment deposits. 53% of the women prefer to apply their organic manure on their vegetables crops planted in their own garden located around the village and near a water source than in flood plain in which access to land is uncertain for them (15%).Results obtained can be shared with several NGOs and extension services of the government for up scaling. There is also a need to better analysis women land tenure and the way to improve it since only men decide land allocation in the flood recession zone
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