238 research outputs found

    The design of a research water table

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    A complete design for a research water table is presented. Following a brief discussion of the analogy between water and compressible-gas flows (hydraulic analogy), the components of the water table and their function are described. The major design considerations are discussed, and the final design is presented

    Industrial Hemp Forage Potential

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    Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) has been a valuable species for humans throughout history due to its adaptability and diverse uses. Farmers are interested in hemp as a forage and feedstuff due to its unique nutritional properties and fast summer production. Moreover, the presence of cannabinoids in leaf and bud tissues may provide pharmacological benefits to animal health, productivity, and product quality under different regulatory frameworks. This study examined two hemp cultivars, Grandi and Joey, solely as forage crops, and samples were taken at different growth stages in Blacksburg, VA, USA, in 2021. The highest biomass production of 1.41 tons per acre for Grandi and Joey was recorded two months after establishment. The samples taken at different growth stages of Grandi and Joey contained 20 to 31% CP, 24 to 44% NDF, 22 to 38% ADF, and 4 to 9% lignin. These preliminary results suggest that hemp has the potential to be used as a forage crop. However, more research is needed to address hemp management, including field establishment and production management, harvest timing for optimum tonnage and forage quality, and animal intake and performance studies

    Home ranges, movements and spatial relationships in an expanding population of black rhinoceros

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    Over 3000 sightings and fixes of individually identified black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis minor ) over a 14-year period provided information on the spatial organization and movements of these introduced animals and their offspring in the Great Fish River Reserve, South Africa. Core home ranges based on 50% adaptive kernel calculations proved useful for depicting spatial associations among individuals and shifts in areas of occupation. The mean home range size (minimum convex polygon) was 11.7 km 2 and that of core adaptive kernel 6.8 km 2 . Annual and individual variations in home range size were great and social factors clearly affected size. For these and other reasons great caution is recommended in interpretation and inter-population comparisons of home range sizes. Most individuals in this expanding population showed mobility, with home ranges shifting over time. Although clearly exhibiting individual home ranges, most females associated in clusters of three or more individuals. Calves generally moved away from their mothers at the time of her next calving, but some subsequently moved back into their mothers' core home range. In addition to mother-offspring pairs, some females also showed multiple-year associations in these clusters. Male home ranges overlapped, and individuals showed multiple-year associations until they reached approximately nine years of age. Males over age 8 were rarely sighted in the core home range of other similarly aged males

    Meralgia paresthetica after ‚Äúall-in-one‚ÄĚ appendectomy

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    AbstractMinimally invasive approaches have become standard for pediatric appendectomy. The laparoscopic assisted single port approach, also known as the ‚Äúall-in-one‚ÄĚ appendectomy, has gained recent popularity [1]. We describe a child who suffered meralgia paresthetica (a neuropathy in the distribution of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve) after a laparoscopic assisted single port appendectomy, perhaps secondary to mobilization of the cecum

    Antioxidative Activities of Alfalfa and Timothy Varieties

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    The term functional foods is often used as a generic description for the beneficial effects of ingested foods that go beyond their traditional nutritive value (Bauman et al., 2001). Milk and dairy products are important dietary sources of nutrients, providing energy, high quality protein, and a variety of vitamins and minerals. Recent research has focused on altering the fat and protein content of milk and other dairy products in order to improve their nutrient content to more aptly reflect current dietary recommendations and trends. As a result, additional focus is being given to designing foods that have beneficial effects on human health. This study was carried out to investigate the antioxidative activities of forages grown in Korea

    Yield and Nutritive Value of Heading and Headless Sorghum x Sudangrass Hybrids in Response to Cutting Frequency

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    Summer annual forages contribute greatly toward solving the problem of roughage supply for cattle in Korea. These forages support high levels of dairy and beef production during hot summer months when the quality and production of perennial herbage decreases due to unfavourable climatic conditions (Olson, 1971). This study investigated the effects of cutting frequency on dry matter (DM) yield and nutritive value of heading versus headless varieties of sorghum x sudangrass hybrid

    Agroforestry for healthy ecosystems: constraints, improvement strategies and extension in Pakistan

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    Globally, forest ecosystems are shrinking and their health is declining due to a range of biotic and abiotic factors. Forest ecosystems in Pakistan are no exception and the country faces a crisis as its growing population (>‚ÄČ208 million) places increasing pressure on the country‚Äôs food production systems and forest resources. Effective food systems that enhance productivity, increase economic outputs, improve ecological outcomes and maintain social acceptance are needed. Agroforestry, a traditional land management system in Pakistan, offers the opportunity to meet these goals. Planting trees on private farmland provides clear ownership of any timber resource and well managed systems have great potential both to boost agriculture and reduce wood shortages. Concerted extension efforts have been made to introduce and promote innovative agroforestry practices in Pakistan, but the success of these efforts depends on many factors. This paper reviews some of the current constraints to agroforestry promotion in Pakistan, including attitudes of the extension staff, poor or weak research-extension coordination, lack of trained personnel, lack of farmer response to advice, tree species limitations, and market mechanism as well as wood price challenges. Establishing model agroforestry farms at the village level can be a productive extension approach, but successful extension programming requires partners to share both an appreciation of the problem and a vision of successful outcomes. Successful promotion also requires appropriate choice of message, messenger, target audience and effective use of appropriate communication tools. Remedial measures to streamline the existing systems and devise future sustainable strategies and approaches are suggested to promote agroforestry in Pakistan

    Year-Round Forage Systems for Beef Cows and Calves

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    Beef cow systems in the USA are based on forages with little or no concentrates fed. Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb. L.) is one of the important pasture forages in the lower Northeast and upper South (Allen et al., 2001). Limited research has been conducted on year-round all forage systems based on cool season forages. Stockpiling tall fescue in late summer-early fall provides good quality forage that is usually grazed rather than harvested. Forage systems including tall fescue and clover (Trifolium repens L.) produced excellent performance in beef cows and calves, with minimum inputs (Allen et al., 2001). The present experiment is a component of a larger initiative, Pasture-based Forage Systems for Appalachia. The specific objective of this experiment is to evaluate different forage systems for beef cows and calves

    Switchgrass is a promising, high-yielding crop for California biofuel

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    Ethanol use in California is expected to rise to 1.62 billion gallons per year in 2012, more than 90% of which will be trucked or shipped into the state. Switchgrass, a nonnative grass common in other states, has been identified as a possible high-yielding biomass crop for the production of cellulosic ethanol. The productivity of the two main ecotypes of switchgrass, lowland and upland, was evaluated under irrigated conditions across four diverse California ecozones - from Tulelake in the cool north to warm Imperial Valley in the south. In the first full year of production, the lowland varieties yielded up to 17 tons per acre of biomass, roughly double the biomass yields of California rice or maize. The yield response to nitrogen fertilization was statistically insignificant in the first year of production, except for in the Central Valley plots that were harvested twice a year. The biomass yields in our study indicate that switchgrass is a promising biofuel crop for California
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