28 research outputs found

    ‚ÄėFOUR LEGS GOOD, TWO LEGS BETTER‚Äô: THE CHANGE OF UTOPIA TO DYSTOPIA IN GEORGE ORWELL‚ÄôS ANIMAL FARM

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    This research is an analysis of the allegorical plot of Animal Farm and its clever usage of anthropomorphism in the change from a peaceful farm to a tyrannical one. This paper indicates the major features of the change from a utopian farm to a dystopian one, such as the perpetually increasing amount of labour that each animal has to undertake, the obvious decrease of ration which the pigs use for trading otherwise, the disturbing intervention into animals' personal freedom and thought by the totalitarian pigs and many more accounts that further establish such change. The aim of this was to shed light on those distinct paths that may lead any society towards dystopia, lest any community may have already begun going down such paths, to alert them and reverberate the sounding alarm. At the beginning, this research dealt with an introduction to the background of the time and literary movement that was present during the process of writing Animal Farm, namely the rise of the Stalinisit regime, and the surge of Utopian/Dystopian novels. The second chapter studies previous research written on the same topic as this one, the early events in Animal Farm and their effect on shaping the farm, and the significance of freedom within the farm. The third chapter consists of demonstrating the fundamental changes that contributed to the decline of the farm into its eventual dystopian nature, and a conclusion on the matter. The paper uses a textual and historical approaches in analyzing the texts of the novella.  Keywords: utopia, dystopia, orwell, labour, liberty, tyranny, commandment, censorshi

    Aerosol Delivery of Small Hairpin Osteopontin Blocks Pulmonary Metastasis of Breast Cancer in Mice

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    Metastasis to the lung may be the final step in the breast cancer-related morbidity. Conventional therapies such as chemotherapy and surgery are somewhat successful, however, metastasis-related breast cancer morbidity remains high. Thus, a novel approach to prevent breast tumor metastasis is needed.Aerosol of lentivirus-based small hairpin osteopontin was delivered into mice with breast cancer twice a week for 1 or 2 months using a nose-only inhalation system. The effects of small hairpin osteopontin on breast cancer metastasis to the lung were evaluated using near infrared imaging as well as diverse molecular techniques. Aerosol-delivered small hairpin osteopontin significantly decreased the expression level of osteopontin and altered the expression of several important metastasis-related proteins in our murine breast cancer model.Aerosol-delivered small hairpin osteopontin blocked breast cancer metastasis. Our results showed that noninvasive targeting of pulmonary osteopontin or other specific genes responsible for cancer metastasis could be used as an effective therapeutic regimen for the treatment of metastatic epithelial tumors

    The Physics of the B Factories

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    This work is on the Physics of the B Factories. Part A of this book contains a brief description of the SLAC and KEK B Factories as well as their detectors, BaBar and Belle, and data taking related issues. Part B discusses tools and methods used by the experiments in order to obtain results. The results themselves can be found in Part C

    Notes for genera: basal clades of Fungi (including Aphelidiomycota, Basidiobolomycota, Blastocladiomycota, Calcarisporiellomycota, Caulochytriomycota, Chytridiomycota, Entomophthoromycota, Glomeromycota, Kickxellomycota, Monoblepharomycota, Mortierellomycota, Mucoromycota, Neocallimastigomycota, Olpidiomycota, Rozellomycota and Zoopagomycota)

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    Compared to the higher fungi (Dikarya), taxonomic and evolutionary studies on the basal clades of fungi are fewer in number. Thus, the generic boundaries and higher ranks in the basal clades of fungi are poorly known. Recent DNA based taxonomic studies have provided reliable and accurate information. It is therefore necessary to compile all available information since basal clades genera lack updated checklists or outlines. Recently, Tedersoo et al. (MycoKeys 13:1--20, 2016) accepted Aphelidiomycota and Rozellomycota in Fungal clade. Thus, we regard both these phyla as members in Kingdom Fungi. We accept 16 phyla in basal clades viz. Aphelidiomycota, Basidiobolomycota, Blastocladiomycota, Calcarisporiellomycota, Caulochytriomycota, Chytridiomycota, Entomophthoromycota, Glomeromycota, Kickxellomycota, Monoblepharomycota, Mortierellomycota, Mucoromycota, Neocallimastigomycota, Olpidiomycota, Rozellomycota and Zoopagomycota. Thus, 611 genera in 153 families, 43 orders and 18 classes are provided with details of classification, synonyms, life modes, distribution, recent literature and genomic data. Moreover, Catenariaceae Couch is proposed to be conserved, Cladochytriales Mozl.-Standr. is emended and the family Nephridiophagaceae is introduced

    The Physics of the B Factories