383 research outputs found

    Axial Variations and Entry Effects in a Pressure Screen

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    Pressure screens are used for contaminant removal and fibre length fractionation in the production of pulp and paper products. Axial variations and entry effects in the screen are known to occur and these variations have not been adequately quantified. This thesis describes a fundamental study of the axial variations of several factors that occur within an industrial pressure screen; namely, pulp consistency, fibre length distribution, rotor pressure pulse, and feed annulus tangential velocity. Axial variations of pulp consistency in the screen annulus and the accept chamber of the screen were studied using an internal radial sampling method. Localised pulp samples were taken and evaluated and common measures of screen performance such as fibre passage ratio and fractionation efficiency were calculated along the screen. Consistency generally increased along the length of the screen although under certain conditions the consistency toward the front of the screen was lower than the feed consistency. A two passage ratio model that incorporated forward and reverse passage ratio was derived to elucidate the flow of both fibre and fluid through the screen and their effects on overall screen performance. The passage of fibre through the screen decreased with screen length which generally had a positive effect on the fractionation efficiency toward the back of the screen. The passage of individual fibre length fractions was also studied and it was found that long fibre had a much lower passage than short fibre which caused the average fibre length in the annulus to increase. Rotor induced pressure pulse variations along the screen length were also investigated. The magnitude of the pressure pulse was significantly lower (up to 40 %) at the rear of the screen. The variation in pressure caused by the rotor is due to a Venturi effect and the shape of the rotor. The relative velocity of the fluid and the rotor, called the slip factor, also directly affects the size of the pressure pulse in the annulus. The slip factor decreases along the length of the screen due to the increase in tangential velocity of the fluid. Pressure pulse data was also used to estimate the instantaneous aperture velocity and back-flush ratio. The instantaneous aperture velocity was calculated to vary considerably from the superficial aperture velocity by up to 5 m/s in the forward direction and 10 m/s in the reverse direction. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) was used to model tangential velocity changes in simplified screen annuli with axial through flow. For a smooth screen rotor the mean tangential velocity increased over the entire length of the annulus without reaching a maximum value. A step and bump rotor were modelled and the shape of the pressure pulses showed good agreement with experimentally measured pulses. The mean tangential velocity and the entrance length were found to be heavily dependant on the screen rotor used

    Internal fibre length concentration in a pressure screen

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    Localised axial consistency profiles within a pressure screen of a Pinus Radiata kraft pulp are reported. Axial Samples were also analysed using a Kajaani FS-200 to obtain fibre length distribution data. Localised consistency in the feed annulus was found to vary considerably and the consistency was found to be less than the feed consistency over some portions of the screen (annular dilution). Changes in consistency along the accept side was fairly constant although subtle changes were observed. Pulp passage ratios for both the bulk and individual fibre length fractions were calculated using the consistency profiles and fibre length data. In all cases fibre passage decreased along the screen length. Fibre passage was affected by a position effect which is comprised of two factors: flocculation effects, and flow and rotor effects. Fibre fractionation efficiency was found to increase along the length of the screen. Mechanisms that account for the observed annular dilution, passage ratio and efficiency changes are proposed. These involve flow of both fluid and fibre in the forward and reverse directions across the screen plate, increased flocculation in the feed annulus and the slip velocity between incoming pulp and the rotor tip

    Thermocline management of stratified tanks for heat storage

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    Stratified tanks are useful for maximising the thermal energy efficiency of non-continuous and semi-continuous processes. Liquid at two or more dissimilar temperatures is stored within the same tank to provide a buffer for variations in heating and cooling loads. Control of the thermocline between the hot and cold fluid regions is needed to minimise thermocline growth and maximise operation of the storage tank. An experimental programme using a scale model of an industrial stratified tank (aspect ratio 3.5) and Perspex tank (aspect ratio 8.2) is reported. The behaviour and growth of the hot-cold thermocline under various operating conditions is presented. A siphoning method to re-establish the thermocline without interrupting the use of the tank is tested. Siphoning of the thermocline region from either 20%, 50% or 80% of the tank height is an effective strategy for uninterrupted interface re-establishment. However, the rate and position of siphoning and the load balance of the exit streams are critical variables for minimising the time for effective re-establishment of the two temperature zones

    The challenge of integrating non-continuous processes-milk powder plant case study

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    The integration of non-continuous processes such as a milk powder plant present a challenge for existing process integration techniques. Current techniques are generally based on steady and continuous operation which for some industries is not the case. Milk production varies considerably during the year as dairy cows in New Zealand are grazed on pasture, which affects the scheduling and operation of plants on site. The frequency and duration of cleaning cycles and non-productive operating states can have a major affect on energy demand and the availability of heat sources and heat sinks. In this paper the potential for indirect heat transfer between the several plants using a heat recovery loop and stratified tank at a typical New Zealand dairy factory is investigated. The maximum amount of heat recovery is calculated for a range of recirculation loop temperatures. The maximum amount of heat recovery can be increased considerably if the temperature of the hot fluid in the recirculation loop is varied depending on which condition the site is operating under

    Ensuring cost-effective heat exchanger network design for non-continuous processes

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    The variation in stream conditions over time inevitably adds significant complexity to the task of integrating non-continuous processes. The Time Averaging Method (TAM), where stream conditions are simply averaged across the entire time cycle, leads to unrealistic energy targets for direct heat recovery and consequently to Heat Exchanger Network (HEN) designs that are in fact suboptimal. This realisation led to the development of the Time Slice Method (TSM) that instead considers each time interval separately, and can be used to reach accurate targets and to design the appropriate HEN to maximise heat recovery. However, in practise the HENs often require excessive exchanger surface area, which renders them unfeasible when capital costs are taken in to account. An extension of the TSM that reduces the required overall exchanger surface area and systematically distributes it across the stream matches is proposed. The methodology is summarised with the help of a simple case study and further improvement opportunities are discusse

    Carbon Emissions Pinch Analysis (CEPA) for emissions reduction in the New Zealand electricity sector

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    Carbon Emissions Pinch Analysis (CEPA) is a recent extension of traditional thermal and mass pinch analysis to the area of emissions targeting and planning on a macro-scale (i.e. economy wide). This paper presents an extension to the current methodology that accounts for increased demand and a carbon pinch analysis of the New Zealand electricity industry while illustrating some of the issues with realising meaningful emissions reductions. The current large proportion of renewable generation (67% in 2007) complicates extensive reduction of carbon emissions from electricity generation. The largest growth in renewable generation is expected to come from geothermal generation followed by wind and hydro. A four fold increase in geothermal generation capacity is needed in addition to large amounts of new wind generation to reduce emissions to around 1990 levels and also meet projected demand. The expected expansion of geothermal generation in New Zealand raises issues of GHG emissions from the geothermal fields. The emissions factors between fields can vary by almost two orders of magnitude making predictions of total emissions highly site specific

    Carbon emissions reduction and net energy generation analysis in the New Zealand electricity sector through to 2050

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    Carbon Emissions Pinch Analysis (CEPA) and Energy Return On Energy Investment (ERoEI) analysis are combined to investigate the feasibility of New Zealand reaching and maintaining a renewables electricity target of above 80% by 2025 and 2050, while also increasing electricity generation at an annual rate of 1.5%, and with an increase of electricity generation in the distant future to accommodate a 50% switch to electric vehicle transportation. To meet New Zealand’s growing electricity demand up to 2025 the largest growth in renewable generation is expected to come from geothermal generation (four-fold increase) followed by wind and hydro. To meet expected demand up to 2050 and beyond, including electric vehicle transportation, geothermal generation will expand to 17% of total generation, wind to 16%, and other renewables, such as marine and biomass, will make up about 4%. Including hydro, the total renewable generation in 2050 is expected to reach 82%

    Integrating heat recovery from milk powder spray dryer exhausts in the dairy industry

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    Heat recovery from milk powder spray dryer exhausts has proven challenging due to both economic and thermodynamic constraints. Integrating the dryer with the rest of the process (e.g. evaporation stages) can increase the viability of exhaust recovery. Several potential integration schemes for a milk powder plant have been investigated. Indirect heat transfer via a coupled loop between the spray dryer exhaust and various heat sinks were modeled and the practical heat recovery potential determined. Hot utility use was reduced by as much as 21% if suitable heat sinks are selected. Due to high particle loading and operating temperatures in the particle sticky regime, powder deposition in the exhaust heat exchanger is perhaps the greatest obstacle for implementing heat recovery schemes on spray dryers. Adequate cleaning systems are needed to ensure continuous dyer operation

    California’s Renewables Portfolio Standard (RPS) requires 33% renewable electricity generation by 2020 - Dream or Reality?

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    Progress on California’s Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS), which requires 33% of all retail electricity sales to be served by renewable energy sources by 2020, excluding large hydro, is reported in this paper. The emerging renewable electricity mix in California (CA) and surrounding states which form the Western Electricity Coordination Council (WECC) is analysed using the Carbon Emission Pinch Analysis (CEPA) and Energy Return on Energy Invested (EROI) methodologies. The reduction in emissions with increased renewables is illustrated and the challenge of maintaining high EROI levels for renewable generation is examined for low and high electricity demand growth. The role of the California government in facilitating progress towards a more sustainable renewable electricity future is also highlighted. The investigation shows that wind and solar PV collectively form an integral part of California reaching the 33% renewables target (excluding large hydro) by 2020. Government intervention of tax rebates and subsidies, net electricity metering and a four tiered electricity price has accelerated the uptake of renewable wind and solar PV. Residential uptake of solar PV is also reducing overall California electricity grid demand. Emphasis on new renewable generation is stimulating development of affordable wind and solar technology in California which has the added benefit of enhancing social sustainability through improved employment opportunities at a variety of technical levels

    WinGEMS modelling and pinch analysis of a paper machine for utility reduction

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    A multi-ply paper machine process model was developed using WinGEMS and the stream data produced was used to conduct a pinch analysis. The product stream was excluded from the analysis and the composite curves display the enthalpy contained only in the inputs and outputs to the various sections of the paper machine. The pinch point for the overall paper machine was 55.9 C while the minimum hot utility target was 170 MW. Occurrences of cross pinch heat transfer were identified and discussed. Heat recovery options for heating of the fresh water showers, using waste heat streams were investigated. Steam savings of over 14 MW could be achieved by recovering heat from two waste streams that currently go directly to drain with no heat recovery taking place. The use of pinch analysis for utilities targeting under non-continuous conditions was examined. Finally, the feasibility of integrating non-conventional technologies, such as heat storage, is discussed
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