69 research outputs found

    Estudio comparativo de las actividades in vitro de productos comerciales de polimixina B sobre Pseudomonas aeruginosa aislada de pacientes hospitalizados

    Get PDF
    Introducci贸n: La polimixina B se ha aplicado como uno de los antibi贸ticos de 煤ltimo recurso para el tratamiento de la multirresistencia entre las infecciones bacterianas Gram negativas. Debido a efectos secundarios como toxicidad renal, el uso de polimixina se asocia con limitaciones. El presente estudio eval煤a la actividad antibacteriana in vitro de varios productos comerciales de polimixina B contra Pseudomonas aeruginosa. M茅todos: Este estudio incluy贸 63 aislados de P. aeruginosa no duplicados que se examinaron para la prueba de sus卢ceptibilidad in vitro a la polimixina B utilizando los siguientes discos de polvo: sulfato de polimixina B, otosporina, Poly-Mxb y Myxacort. Tambi茅n se han identificado las MIC50 y MIC90 para los antibi贸ticos de polimixina B. Resultados: Myxacort tuvo una actividad funcional contra la mayor铆a de los aislados de P. aeruginosa, y s贸lo siete aislados tuvieron una CIM relativamente alta. Las actividades de Poly-MXb y Myxacort fueron las mismas que las de otosporina. Conclusiones: Nuestros resultados revelaron que el producto gen茅rico nacional de polimixina B (Myxacort), y dos productos externos (Otosporin, Poly-MXb) son similares en t茅rminos de actividad microbiol贸gica.Introduction: Polymyxin B has been applied as one of the last-resort antibiotics for the treatment of multidrug resistance among Gram-negative bacterial infections. Due to side effects such as renal toxicity, the use of polymyxin is associated with limitations. The present study evaluates in vitro antibacterial activity of a number of polymyxin B commercial products against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Methods: This study included 63 non-duplicated P. aeruginosa isolates examined for in vitro polymyxin B suscepti卢bility testing using the following powder disks: polymyxin B sulfate, otosporin, Poly-Mxb, and Myxacort. MIC50 and MIC90 have also been identified for polymyxin B antibiotics. Results: Myxacort had functional activity against most P. aeruginosa isolates, and only seven isolates had a relative卢ly high MIC. The activities of Poly-MXb and Myxacort were the same as otosporin. Conclusions: Our findings revealed that the national generic polymyxin B product (Myxacort), and two external products (Otosporin, Poly-MXb) are similar in terms of microbiological activity

    The Significance of Matrix Metalloproteinases in the Immunopathogenesis and Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis

    Get PDF
    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS). The major pathological outcomes of the disease are the loss of blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity and the development of reactive astrogliosis and MS plaque. For the disease to occur, the non-resident cells must enter into the immune-privileged CNS through a breach in the relatively impermeable BBB. It has been demonstrated that matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play an important role in the immunopathogenesis of MS, in part through the disruption of the BBB and the recruitment of inflammatory cells into the CNS. Moreover, MMPs can also enhance the cleavage of myelin basic protein (MBP) and the demyelination process. Regarding the growing data on the roles of MMPs and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs) in the pathogenesis of MS, this review discusses the role of different types of MMPs, including MMP-2, -3, -7, -9, -12 and -25, in the immunopathogenesis and treatment of MS

    Nosocomial Infections in Burned Patients in Motahari Hospital, Tehran, Iran

    Get PDF
    Burn patients are at high risk of developing nosocomial infection because of their destroyed skin barrier and suppressed immune system, compounded by prolonged hospitalization and invasive therapeutic and diagnostic procedures. Studies on nosocomial infection in burn patients are not well described. The objective of the present study was to identify the causative bacterial of nosocomial infection and to determine the incidence of nosocomial infection and their changing during hospitalization in burned patients admitted to in the Motahari Hospital, Tehran, Iran. During the second part of 2010, 164 patients were included in this study. Samples were taken the first 48 hours and the fourth week after admission to Motahari Burn hospital. Isolation and identification of microorganisms was performed using the standard procedure. Of the 164 patients, 717 samples were taken and 812 bacteria were identified, 610 patients were culture positive on day 7 while 24 (17.2%) on 14 days after admission. The bacteria causing infections were 325 Pseudomonas, 140 Acinetobacter, 132 Staphylococcus aureus, and 215 others. The percentage of mortality was 12%. All of patients had at least 1 positive culture with Pseudomonas and/or with Acinetobacter. Hospitals suggest continuous observationof burn infections and increase strategies for antimicrobial resistance control and treatment of infectious complications

    Physiological and Fluorescence Reaction of Four Rice Genotypes to Exogenous Application of IAA and Kinetin under Drought Stress

    Get PDF
    To assess the effects of IAA and Kinetin plant growth regulators in order to improve the drought tolerance in rice seedlings (Oryza sativa L.), a factorial experiment was carried out based on complete randomized design with three replications. The experimental factors included different rice genotypes [鈥楪harib鈥, 鈥楰hazar鈥, 鈥楽epidrood鈥 and 鈥業R83750 -131-1鈥 (鈥業R83750鈥 )], drought stress from 1 to 4 code of the Vergara coding system and control (normal irrigation) and growth regulators in three levels (IAA and Kinetin through foliar spraying and non-application as control). The results indicated, under normal irrigation condition together with IAA application, 鈥業R83750鈥 rice had the highest number of tillers and leaf greenness, with mean of 18.27 and 49.46, respectively. The highest amount of leaf relative water content) 95.11 percent) was related to 鈥楽epidrood鈥. Under drought stress condition, the highest electrolyte leakage (36.59 percent) was observed in 鈥楪harib鈥. In drought condition, the highest leaf drying score was related to 鈥楪harib鈥 in both years, but the highest score of leaf rolling index (9) was observed in 鈥楪harib鈥 and 鈥楰hazar鈥. The present findings showed that drought stress had harmful effects in all examined genotypes and the impact in susceptible genotypes (鈥楪harib鈥 and 鈥楰hazar鈥) was more than 鈥業R83750鈥 and 鈥楽epidrood鈥. Application of growth regulators (IAA and Kin) improved conditions for the growth of all genotypes. Therefore, using the tolerant genotypes along with growth regulators can improve the rice growth traits

    A study on drug delivery tracing with radiolabeled mesoporous hydroxyapatite nanoparticles conjugated with 2DG/DOX for breast tumor cells

    Get PDF
    Background: Mesoporous nanoparticles have a great potential in targeted therapy approaches due to their ideal properties for encapsulation of various drugs, proteins and also biologically active molecules. Material and methods: We used mesoporous hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles as a drug carrier and developed radiolabeled mesoporous HA containing of 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG) and Doxorubicin (DOX) with technetium-99m (99mTc) for imaging in in vitro and in vivo studies. Results: 2DG and DOX in presence of mesoporous HA nanoparticles more reduced the fraction of viable cells in the MDA-MB-231, MCF-7 human and MC4-L2 Balb/c mice breast cancer cells. The radiochemical purity of the nano-2DG-DOX complex with 99mTc was calculated to 96.8%. The results of cellular uptake showed a 44.77% increase in uptake of the [99mTc]-nano-2DG-DOX compared to the complex without nanoparticles (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Radioisotopic imaging demonstrated a high biochemical stability for [99mTc]-nano-2DG-DOX complex. The results demonstrated that [99mTc]-nano-2DG-DOX, may be used as an attractive candidate in cancer imaging and treatment managing.BACKGROUND: Mesoporous nanoparticles have a great potential in targeted therapy approaches due to their ideal properties for encapsulation of various drugs, proteins and also biologically active molecules. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We used mesoporous hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles as a drug carrier and developed ra颅diolabeled mesoporous HA containing of 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG) and Doxorubicin (DOX) with technetium-99m (99mTc) for imaging in in vitro and in vivo studies. RESULTS: 2DG and DOX in presence of mesoporous HA nanoparticles more reduced the fraction of viable cells in the MDA-MB-231, MCF-7 human and MC4-L2 Balb/c mice breast cancer cells. The radiochemical purity of the nano-2DG-DOX complex with 99mTc was calculated to 96.8%. The results of cellular uptake showed a 44.77% increase in uptake of the [99mTc]- nano-2DG-DOX compared to the complex without nanoparticles (p &lt; 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Radioisotopic imaging demonstrated a high biochemical stability for [99mTc]-nano-2DG-DOX complex. The results demonstrated that [99mTc]-nano-2DG-DOX, may be used as an attractive candidate in cancer imaging and treatment managing.

    Global injury morbidity and mortality from 1990 to 2017 : results from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017

    Get PDF
    Correction:Background Past research in population health trends has shown that injuries form a substantial burden of population health loss. Regular updates to injury burden assessments are critical. We report Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2017 Study estimates on morbidity and mortality for all injuries. Methods We reviewed results for injuries from the GBD 2017 study. GBD 2017 measured injury-specific mortality and years of life lost (YLLs) using the Cause of Death Ensemble model. To measure non-fatal injuries, GBD 2017 modelled injury-specific incidence and converted this to prevalence and years lived with disability (YLDs). YLLs and YLDs were summed to calculate disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Findings In 1990, there were 4 260 493 (4 085 700 to 4 396 138) injury deaths, which increased to 4 484 722 (4 332 010 to 4 585 554) deaths in 2017, while age-standardised mortality decreased from 1079 (1073 to 1086) to 738 (730 to 745) per 100 000. In 1990, there were 354 064 302 (95% uncertainty interval: 338 174 876 to 371 610 802) new cases of injury globally, which increased to 520 710 288 (493 430 247 to 547 988 635) new cases in 2017. During this time, age-standardised incidence decreased non-significantly from 6824 (6534 to 7147) to 6763 (6412 to 7118) per 100 000. Between 1990 and 2017, age-standardised DALYs decreased from 4947 (4655 to 5233) per 100 000 to 3267 (3058 to 3505). Interpretation Injuries are an important cause of health loss globally, though mortality has declined between 1990 and 2017. Future research in injury burden should focus on prevention in high-burden populations, improving data collection and ensuring access to medical care.Peer reviewe

    Global age-sex-specific fertility, mortality, healthy life expectancy (HALE), and population estimates in 204 countries and territories, 1950-2019 : a comprehensive demographic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019

    Get PDF
    Background: Accurate and up-to-date assessment of demographic metrics is crucial for understanding a wide range of social, economic, and public health issues that affect populations worldwide. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019 produced updated and comprehensive demographic assessments of the key indicators of fertility, mortality, migration, and population for 204 countries and territories and selected subnational locations from 1950 to 2019. Methods: 8078 country-years of vital registration and sample registration data, 938 surveys, 349 censuses, and 238 other sources were identified and used to estimate age-specific fertility. Spatiotemporal Gaussian process regression (ST-GPR) was used to generate age-specific fertility rates for 5-year age groups between ages 15 and 49 years. With extensions to age groups 10鈥14 and 50鈥54 years, the total fertility rate (TFR) was then aggregated using the estimated age-specific fertility between ages 10 and 54 years. 7417 sources were used for under-5 mortality estimation and 7355 for adult mortality. ST-GPR was used to synthesise data sources after correction for known biases. Adult mortality was measured as the probability of death between ages 15 and 60 years based on vital registration, sample registration, and sibling histories, and was also estimated using ST-GPR. HIV-free life tables were then estimated using estimates of under-5 and adult mortality rates using a relational model life table system created for GBD, which closely tracks observed age-specific mortality rates from complete vital registration when available. Independent estimates of HIV-specific mortality generated by an epidemiological analysis of HIV prevalence surveys and antenatal clinic serosurveillance and other sources were incorporated into the estimates in countries with large epidemics. Annual and single-year age estimates of net migration and population for each country and territory were generated using a Bayesian hierarchical cohort component model that analysed estimated age-specific fertility and mortality rates along with 1250 censuses and 747 population registry years. We classified location-years into seven categories on the basis of the natural rate of increase in population (calculated by subtracting the crude death rate from the crude birth rate) and the net migration rate. We computed healthy life expectancy (HALE) using years lived with disability (YLDs) per capita, life tables, and standard demographic methods. Uncertainty was propagated throughout the demographic estimation process, including fertility, mortality, and population, with 1000 draw-level estimates produced for each metric. Findings: The global TFR decreased from 2路72 (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 2路66鈥2路79) in 2000 to 2路31 (2路17鈥2路46) in 2019. Global annual livebirths increased from 134路5 million (131路5鈥137路8) in 2000 to a peak of 139路6 million (133路0鈥146路9) in 2016. Global livebirths then declined to 135路3 million (127路2鈥144路1) in 2019. Of the 204 countries and territories included in this study, in 2019, 102 had a TFR lower than 2路1, which is considered a good approximation of replacement-level fertility. All countries in sub-Saharan Africa had TFRs above replacement level in 2019 and accounted for 27路1% (95% UI 26路4鈥27路8) of global livebirths. Global life expectancy at birth increased from 67路2 years (95% UI 66路8鈥67路6) in 2000 to 73路5 years (72路8鈥74路3) in 2019. The total number of deaths increased from 50路7 million (49路5鈥51路9) in 2000 to 56路5 million (53路7鈥59路2) in 2019. Under-5 deaths declined from 9路6 million (9路1鈥10路3) in 2000 to 5路0 million (4路3鈥6路0) in 2019. Global population increased by 25路7%, from 6路2 billion (6路0鈥6路3) in 2000 to 7路7 billion (7路5鈥8路0) in 2019. In 2019, 34 countries had negative natural rates of increase; in 17 of these, the population declined because immigration was not sufficient to counteract the negative rate of decline. Globally, HALE increased from 58路6 years (56路1鈥60路8) in 2000 to 63路5 years (60路8鈥66路1) in 2019. HALE increased in 202 of 204 countries and territories between 2000 and 2019

    Global burden of 369 diseases and injuries in 204 countries and territories, 1990鈥2019: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019

    Get PDF
    Background: In an era of shifting global agendas and expanded emphasis on non-communicable diseases and injuries along with communicable diseases, sound evidence on trends by cause at the national level is essential. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) provides a systematic scientific assessment of published, publicly available, and contributed data on incidence, prevalence, and mortality for a mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive list of diseases and injuries. Methods: GBD estimates incidence, prevalence, mortality, years of life lost (YLLs), years lived with disability (YLDs), and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) due to 369 diseases and injuries, for two sexes, and for 204 countries and territories. Input data were extracted from censuses, household surveys, civil registration and vital statistics, disease registries, health service use, air pollution monitors, satellite imaging, disease notifications, and other sources. Cause-specific death rates and cause fractions were calculated using the Cause of Death Ensemble model and spatiotemporal Gaussian process regression. Cause-specific deaths were adjusted to match the total all-cause deaths calculated as part of the GBD population, fertility, and mortality estimates. Deaths were multiplied by standard life expectancy at each age to calculate YLLs. A Bayesian meta-regression modelling tool, DisMod-MR 2.1, was used to ensure consistency between incidence, prevalence, remission, excess mortality, and cause-specific mortality for most causes. Prevalence estimates were multiplied by disability weights for mutually exclusive sequelae of diseases and injuries to calculate YLDs. We considered results in the context of the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a composite indicator of income per capita, years of schooling, and fertility rate in females younger than 25 years. Uncertainty intervals (UIs) were generated for every metric using the 25th and 975th ordered 1000 draw values of the posterior distribution. Findings: Global health has steadily improved over the past 30 years as measured by age-standardised DALY rates. After taking into account population growth and ageing, the absolute number of DALYs has remained stable. Since 2010, the pace of decline in global age-standardised DALY rates has accelerated in age groups younger than 50 years compared with the 1990鈥2010 time period, with the greatest annualised rate of decline occurring in the 0鈥9-year age group. Six infectious diseases were among the top ten causes of DALYs in children younger than 10 years in 2019: lower respiratory infections (ranked second), diarrhoeal diseases (third), malaria (fifth), meningitis (sixth), whooping cough (ninth), and sexually transmitted infections (which, in this age group, is fully accounted for by congenital syphilis; ranked tenth). In adolescents aged 10鈥24 years, three injury causes were among the top causes of DALYs: road injuries (ranked first), self-harm (third), and interpersonal violence (fifth). Five of the causes that were in the top ten for ages 10鈥24 years were also in the top ten in the 25鈥49-year age group: road injuries (ranked first), HIV/AIDS (second), low back pain (fourth), headache disorders (fifth), and depressive disorders (sixth). In 2019, ischaemic heart disease and stroke were the top-ranked causes of DALYs in both the 50鈥74-year and 75-years-and-older age groups. Since 1990, there has been a marked shift towards a greater proportion of burden due to YLDs from non-communicable diseases and injuries. In 2019, there were 11 countries where non-communicable disease and injury YLDs constituted more than half of all disease burden. Decreases in age-standardised DALY rates have accelerated over the past decade in countries at the lower end of the SDI range, while improvements have started to stagnate or even reverse in countries with higher SDI. Interpretation: As disability becomes an increasingly large component of disease burden and a larger component of health expenditure, greater research and developm nt investment is needed to identify new, more effective intervention strategies. With a rapidly ageing global population, the demands on health services to deal with disabling outcomes, which increase with age, will require policy makers to anticipate these changes. The mix of universal and more geographically specific influences on health reinforces the need for regular reporting on population health in detail and by underlying cause to help decision makers to identify success stories of disease control to emulate, as well as opportunities to improve. Funding: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. 漏 2020 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 licens
    corecore