59 research outputs found

    Neural Networks for Fast Optimisation in Model Predictive Control: A Review

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    Model Predictive Control (MPC) is an optimal control algorithm with strong stability and robustness guarantees. Despite its popularity in robotics and industrial applications, the main challenge in deploying MPC is its high computation cost, stemming from the need to solve an optimisation problem at each control interval. There are several methods to reduce this cost. This survey focusses on approaches where a neural network is used to approximate an existing controller. Herein, relevant and unique neural approximation methods for linear, nonlinear, and robust MPC are presented and compared. Comparisons are based on the theoretical guarantees that are preserved, the factor by which the original controller is sped up, and the size of problem that a framework is applicable to. Research contributions include: a taxonomy that organises existing knowledge, a summary of literary gaps, discussion on promising research directions, and simple guidelines for choosing an approximation framework. The main conclusions are that (1) new benchmarking tools are needed to help prove the generalisability and scalability of approximation frameworks, (2) future breakthroughs most likely lie in the development of ties between control and learning, and (3) the potential and applicability of recently developed neural architectures and tools remains unexplored in this field.Comment: 34 pages, 6 figures 3 tables. Submitted to ACM Computing Survey

    Video Deepfake Classification Using Particle Swarm Optimization-based Evolving Ensemble Models

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    The recent breakthrough of deep learning based generative models has led to the escalated generation of photo-realistic synthetic videos with significant visual quality. Automated reliable detection of such forged videos requires the extraction of fine-grained discriminative spatial-temporal cues. To tackle such challenges, we propose weighted and evolving ensemble models comprising 3D Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) and CNN-Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs) with Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) based network topology and hyper-parameter optimization for video authenticity classification. A new PSO algorithm is proposed, which embeds MullerÔÇÖs method and fixed-point iteration based leader enhancement, reinforcement learning-based optimal search action selection, a petal spiral simulated search mechanism, and cross-breed elite signal generation based on adaptive geometric surfaces. The PSO variant optimizes the RNN topologies in CNN-RNN, as well as key learning configurations of 3D CNNs, with the attempt to extract effective discriminative spatial-temporal cues. Both weighted and evolving ensemble strategies are used for ensemble formulation with aforementioned optimized networks as base classifiers. In particular, the proposed PSO algorithm is used to identify optimal subsets of optimized base networks for dynamic ensemble generation to balance between ensemble complexity and performance. Evaluated using several well-known synthetic video datasets, our approach outperforms existing studies and various ensemble models devised by other search methods with statistical significance for video authenticity classification. The proposed PSO model also illustrates statistical superiority over a number of search methods for solving optimization problems pertaining to a variety of artificial landscapes with diverse geometrical layouts

    A review on otolith models in human perception

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    The vestibular system, which consists of semicircular canals and otolith, are the main sensors mammals use to perceive rotational and linear motions. Identifying the most suitable and consistent mathematical model of the vestibular system is important for research related to driving perception. An appropriate vestibular model is essential for implementation of the Motion Cueing Algorithm (MCA) for motion simulation purposes, because the quality of the MCA is directly dependent on the vestibular model used. In this review, the history and development process of otolith models are presented and analyzed. The otolith organs can detect linear acceleration and transmit information about sensed applied specific forces on the human body. The main purpose of this review is to determine the appropriate otolith models that agree with theoretical analyses and experimental results as well as provide reliable estimation for the vestibular system functions. Formulating and selecting the most appropriate mathematical model of the vestibular system is important to ensure successful human perception modelling and simulation when implementing the model into the MCA for motion analysis

    Artificial Intelligence in Assessing Cardiovascular Diseases and Risk Factors via Retinal Fundus Images: A Review of the Last Decade

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    Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) continue to be the leading cause of mortality on a global scale. In recent years, the application of artificial intelligence (AI) techniques, particularly deep learning (DL), has gained considerable popularity for evaluating the various aspects of CVDs. Moreover, using fundus images and optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) to diagnose retinal diseases has been extensively studied. To better understand heart function and anticipate changes based on microvascular characteristics and function, researchers are currently exploring the integration of AI with non-invasive retinal scanning. Leveraging AI-assisted early detection and prediction of cardiovascular diseases on a large scale holds excellent potential to mitigate cardiovascular events and alleviate the economic burden on healthcare systems. Method: A comprehensive search was conducted across various databases, including PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar, Scopus, Web of Sciences, IEEE Xplore, and ACM Digital Library, using specific keywords related to cardiovascular diseases and artificial intelligence. Results: A total of 87 English-language publications, selected for relevance were included in the study, and additional references were considered. This study presents an overview of the current advancements and challenges in employing retinal imaging and artificial intelligence to identify cardiovascular disorders and provides insights for further exploration in this field. Conclusion: Researchers aim to develop precise disease prognosis patterns as the aging population and global CVD burden increase. AI and deep learning are transforming healthcare, offering the potential for single retinal image-based diagnosis of various CVDs, albeit with the need for accelerated adoption in healthcare systems.Comment: 40 pages, 5 figures, 2 tables, 91 reference

    Adaptive Washout Filter Based on Fuzzy Logic for a Motion Simulation Platform With Consideration of Joints Limitations

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    Motion simulation platforms (MSPs) are widely used to generate driving/flying motion sensations for the users. The MSPs have a restricted workspace area due to the dynamical and physical restrictions of the Motion Platforms active joints as well as the physical limitations of its passive joints. The motion cueing algorithm (MCA) is the reproduction of the motion signal including linear accelerations and angular velocities. It aims to simultaneously respect the MSP's workspace limitations and make the same motion feeling for the user as a real vehicle. The Classical washout filter (WF) is a well-known type of MCA. The classical WF is easy to set-up, offers a low computational burden and high functionality but has some major drawbacks such as fixed WF parameters tuned according to worst-case scenarios and no consideration of the human vestibular system. As a result, adaptive WFs were developed to consider the human vestibular system and enhance the efficiency of the method using time-varying filters. The existing adaptive WFs only cogitate the boundaries of the end-effector in the Cartesian coordinate space as a substitute for the active and passive joints limitations, which is MSP's main limiting factor. This conservative assumption reduces the available workspace area of the MSP and increases the motion sensation error for the MSPs user. In this study, a fuzzy logic-based WF is developed, to consider the dynamical and physical boundaries of the active joints as well as the physical boundaries of the passive joints. A genetic algorithm is used to select the membership functions values of the active and passive joints boundaries. The model is designed using MATLAB /Simulink and the outcomes demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method versus existing adaptive WFs

    CoV-TI-Net: Transferred Initialization with Modified End Layer for COVID-19 Diagnosis

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    This paper proposes transferred initialization with modified fully connected layers for COVID-19 diagnosis. Convolutional neural networks (CNN) achieved a remarkable result in image classification. However, training a high-performing model is a very complicated and time-consuming process because of the complexity of image recognition applications. On the other hand, transfer learning is a relatively new learning method that has been employed in many sectors to achieve good performance with fewer computations. In this research, the PyTorch pre-trained models (VGG19\_bn and WideResNet -101) are applied in the MNIST dataset for the first time as initialization and with modified fully connected layers. The employed PyTorch pre-trained models were previously trained in ImageNet. The proposed model is developed and verified in the Kaggle notebook, and it reached the outstanding accuracy of 99.77% without taking a huge computational time during the training process of the network. We also applied the same methodology to the SIIM-FISABIO-RSNA COVID-19 Detection dataset and achieved 80.01% accuracy. In contrast, the previous methods need a huge compactional time during the training process to reach a high-performing model. Codes are available at the following link: github.com/dipuk0506/SpinalNe

    Neural inference search for multiloss segmentation models

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    Semantic segmentation is vital for many emerging surveillance applications, but current models cannot be relied upon to meet the required tolerance, particularly in complex tasks that involve multiple classes and varied environments. To improve performance, we propose a novel algorithm, neural inference search (NIS), for hyperparameter optimization pertaining to established deep learning segmentation models in conjunction with a new multiloss function. It incorporates three novel search behaviors, i.e., Maximized Standard Deviation Velocity Prediction, Local Best Velocity Prediction, and n -dimensional Whirlpool Search. The first two behaviors are exploratory, leveraging long short-term memory (LSTM)-convolutional neural network (CNN)-based velocity predictions, while the third employs n -dimensional matrix rotation for local exploitation. A scheduling mechanism is also introduced in NIS to manage the contributions of these three novel search behaviors in stages. NIS optimizes learning and multiloss parameters simultaneously. Compared with state-of-the-art segmentation methods and those optimized with other well-known search algorithms, NIS-optimized models show significant improvements across multiple performance metrics on five segmentation datasets. NIS also reliably yields better solutions as compared with a variety of search methods for solving numerical benchmark functions

    Human perception-based washout filtering

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     Through this research we have developed a new Motion Cueing Algorithm (MCA) based on Genetic Algorithm. This method accurately produces translational and rotational motions in a simulator platform with high fidelity and within the simulator’s physical limitations. The results show the superiority of the proposed MCA compared with previous methods
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