35 research outputs found

    Revisiting Economic Growth in Colombia: A Microeconomic Perspective

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    This paper revisits economic growth in Colombia using the growth diagnostics methodology proposed by Hausmann, Rodrik and Velasco (2005), to identify the most binding constraints for economic growth and the policies that, if implemented, can have the largest positive impact. To rank public policy priorities the HRV (2005) methodological approach is complemented with an econometric analysis of micro-data, aimed at exploring the impact that the various potential constraints to growth have had on firm-level investment decisions. The data shows economic reactivation in areas with falling violence. Results from analysis at the microeconomic level, however, give a particular spin to this conclusion by showing that investment decisions at the firm level are also explained by the restoration of some form of public order connected to the cessation of paramilitary violence and not only by the reduction of violence. From a public policy perspective, perhaps the most relevant result is the confirmation that in Colombia investment decisions are negatively affected by the cost of financing. Empirical results, robust across model specifications, single out the provision of access to financing at fair prices as a policy priority for economic growth, relevant across country regions and independent of whether uncertainties from poor protection to property rights are resolved.

    Price cap regulation in the Colombian pharmaceutical market : an impact evaluation

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    We evaluate the impact of a price cap regulation implemented in the Colombian pharmaceutical market between 2011 and 2014. To do so, we take advantage of a unique data set where we observe three sources of variation: i) differences across eighteen groups in the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification system of the WHO, ii) the existence of regulated treated) and unregulated (control) groups within each of these eighteen ATC groups, and iii) differences in time (before and after regulation) for the eighteen ATC groups. A triple dierences model with fixed time effects and cluster errors is used to identify the impact of this regulation. We find that the price-cap regulation contributed to reduce prices in three of the eighteen groups and increase average prices for ten of them. We confirm then that the focal point effect generated by a price-cap regulation can generate unintended distortions. More specifically, our results reveal that the implementation of this price cap regulation potentially increased -public and ;private- expenditure by 30%, only for the 2,422 drugs in the eighteen ATC groups we study

    Price cap regulation in the Colombian pharmaceutical market : An impact evaluation

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    We evaluate the impact of a price cap regulation implemented in the Colombian pharmaceutical market between 2011 and 2014. To do so, we take advantage of a unique data set where we observe three sources of variation: i) differences across eighteen groups in the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification system of the WHO, ii) the existence of regulated treated) and unregulated (control) groups within each of these eighteen ATC groups, and iii) differences in time (before and after regulation) for the eighteen ATC groups. A triple dierences model with fixed time effects and cluster errors is used to identify the impact of this regulation. We find that the price-cap regulation contributed to reduce prices in three of the eighteen groups and increase average prices for ten of them. We confirm then that the focal point effect generated by a price-cap regulation can generate unintended distortions. More specifically, our results reveal that the implementation of this price cap regulation potentially increased -public and ;private- expenditure by 30%, only for the 2,422 drugs in the eighteen ATC groups we study

    Validaci贸n del 脥ndice del Derecho a la Educaci贸n (IDE) para Colombia, empleando la metodolog铆a Delphi

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    El presente documento expone los resultados de la validaci贸n del 脥ndice del Derecho a la Educaci贸n (IDE) para Colombia. El IDE est谩 compuesto por cuatro dimensiones: Disponibilidad, Accesibilidad, Adaptabilidad y Acepta-bilidad. La validaci贸n tiene como objetivo establecer qu茅 indicadores dan cuenta de cada dimensi贸n. Para llegar a un consenso se us贸 la metodolog铆a Delphi, implementada en un aplicativo Web. Este proceso cont贸 con la participaci贸n de 158 expertos del sector educativo, quienes, en dos rondas, clasificaron cada uno de los 12 indicadores analizados en una de las cuatro dimensiones

    Implementing psychosocial support models in contexts of extreme adversity: lessons from a process evaluation in Colombia

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    IntroductionHigh quality investments during early childhood allow children to achieve their full potential by setting developmental foundations. However, challenges in the scale-up of evidence-based interventions make across-the-board implementation a non-trivial matter. Moreover, extreme contextual conditions -such as community violence, forced displacement, and poverty- impose a double threat. First, by directly affecting early childhood development (ECD), forced displacement and exposure to violence during early childhood, coupled with deficits in nurturing relationships, can trigger toxic stress, affecting children鈥檚 mental health and social and emotional learning. Second, contexts of extreme adversity exacerbate common implementation pitfalls in the scale-up of interventions. Recognizing and documenting 鈥渨hat it takes鈥 to successfully implement 鈥渨hat works鈥 can contribute to the expansion and effectiveness of evidence-based programs that promote ECD in these settings. Semillas de Apego (SA, onward), a community-based psychosocial support model for caregivers, materialized as a strategy to promote ECD in communities affected by violence and forced displacement.MethodsThis article presents the results of the process evaluation of SA during the 2018鈥2019 implementation in Tumaco, a violence ridden municipality in the south-west border of Colombia, South America. In this phase, the program reached 714 families, 82% direct victims of violence and 57% were internally displaced. The process evaluation combined qualitative and quantitative methodological approaches to produce evidence of factors that promoted implementation quality.ResultsFindings identified salient components of the program that promoted the program鈥檚 acceptability, adoption, appropriateness, fidelity and sustainability: a rigorous cultural adaptation; well-structured team selection and training methodologies; and a team support and supervision protocol to provide continuous capacity building and prevent burn-out and other occupational hazards common among professionals in mental health and psychosocial support interventions. The statistical analysis using monitoring data identified key predictors of the dosage delivered (a measure of fidelity). Evidence suggests that initial attendance to the program and observable characteristics -such as educational attainment, violence victimization and employment status-predict a successful compliance (in terms of dosage to benefit from the program).DiscussionThis study provides evidence for the development of structural, organizational, and procedural processes for the adoption, appropriate adaptation, and high-fidelity delivery of psychosocial support models delivered in territories affected by extreme adversity

    Poor mental health of victims and former FARC members represents a significant challenge for peace process in Colombia

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    The peace accord between the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) and the Colombian Government has been widely lauded by the international community, and rightly so. Yet, formidable challenges remain to its implementation. One substantial challenge is the high percentage of former guerillas as well as victims of the conflict in need of mental health care

    Riqueza, distribuci贸n geogr谩fica y estado de conservaci贸n del g茅nero Dahlia (Asteraceae) en M茅xico

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    Background and Aims: The genus Dahlia (Asteraceae) is native to the Americas and Mexico is its center of diversification. Dahlia is important in ornamental horticulture, and breeding programs have generated more than 15,000 varieties. Mexico represents the main source of germplasm; therefore, a study of its richness and geographical distribution is essential. The aims of this work were to analyze the species richness, geographical distribution and evaluate the conservation status of Dahlia in Mexico.Methods: A database with 1980 georeferenced observations was elaborated from herbarium specimens, publications and field collections. The information was analyzed using Geographic Information Systems to reveal the estimated species richness by political division, vegetation types, regions, biogeographical provinces, elevational, latitudinal and longitudinal ranges, a grid cell of 33 脳 33 km, and Protected Natural Areas.Key results: Dahlia consists of 38 species, all growing in Mexico, 35 are endemic. The genus occurs in 26 states. Hidalgo and Oaxaca have the highest number of species, followed by Guerrero. Jalisco has the most records. Commonly, Dahlia grows in coniferous and oak forest. Its distribution ranges from 24 to 3810 m elevation; however, most species are found between 2000 and 2500 m. High species richness occurs in two areas; the first one is located in the Sierra Madre Oriental including northeastern Quer茅taro, eastern Guanajuato and southern San Luis Potos铆; the second one is in the Sierra Madre del Sur in northwestern Oaxaca. Finally, 23 species grow within the boundaries of a Protected Natural Area, and the Sierra Gorda, state of Quer茅taro, concentrates the highest species number.Conclusions: The analyses of species richness and distribution showed that the greatest diversity of Dahlia is found in the Mexican Transition Zone, in the Sierra Madre del Sur and the Sierra Madre Oriental provinces.Antecedentes y Objetivos: El g茅nero Dahlia (Asteraceae) es nativo de Am茅rica y M茅xico es su centro de diversificaci贸n. Dahlia es importante en la horticultura ornamental, su mejoramiento gen茅tico ha generado m谩s de 15,000 variedades. M茅xico representa la principal fuente de germoplasma, por lo que un estudio sobre su riqueza y distribuci贸n geogr谩fica es indispensable. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron analizar la riqueza de especies de Dahlia en M茅xico, su distribuci贸n geogr谩fica y evaluar su estado de conservaci贸n.M茅todos: Se elabor贸 una base de datos con 1980 registros georreferenciados, obtenidos de ejemplares de herbario, publicaciones y recolectas de campo. La informaci贸n fue analizada utilizando Sistemas de Informaci贸n Geogr谩fica, se estim贸 la riqueza de especies por divisi贸n pol铆tica, tipos de vegetaci贸n, regiones, provincias biogeogr谩ficas, rangos elevacionales, latitudinales y longitudinales, una cuadr铆cula de 33 脳 33 km y 脕reas Naturales Protegidas.Resultados clave: Dahlia agrupa 38 especies, todas crecen en M茅xico, 35 son end茅micas. El g茅nero est谩 presente en 26 estados. Hidalgo y Oaxaca tienen el mayor n煤mero de especies, seguidos por Guerrero. Jalisco muestra el mayor esfuerzo de colecta. Com煤nmente, Dahlia habita en bosques de con铆feras y encino. Su rango de distribuci贸n abarca desde 24 hasta 3810 m de elevaci贸n, pero el mayor n煤mero de especies crece entre 2000 y 2500 m. Se encontraron dos 谩reas de alta riqueza de especies de Dahlia en M茅xico; la primera est谩 en el noreste de Quer茅taro, este de Guanajuato y sureste de San Luis Potos铆, en la Sierra Madre Oriental, la otra en el noroeste de Oaxaca, en la Sierra Madre del Sur. Finalmente, 23 especies viven dentro de un 脕rea Natural Protegida. La Sierra Gorda en el estado de Quer茅taro concentra el mayor n煤mero de especies.Conclusiones: El an谩lisis de la riqueza de especies y su distribuci贸n mostr贸 que la mayor diversidad de Dahlia se encuentra en la Zona de Transici贸n Mexicana en las provincias Sierra Madre del Sur y Sierra Madre Oriental

    N煤meros cromos贸micos para tres especies de Cosmos secci贸n Discopoda (Asteraceae, Coreopsideae), con notas citogeogr谩ficas

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    Background and Aims: Cosmos section Discopoda (Asteraceae, Coreopsideae) is a model for studying polyploidy and aneuploidy. This section is monophyletic, including 24 herbaceous perennials with some polyploid species and others aneuploids. However, the chromosome numbers of some species are still unknown and their cytogeography has not been studied. Here the chromosome counts for three species are revealed and the ancestral levels of ploidy as well as geographical distributions of the different ploidy levels are compared.Methods: Previously known chromosome counts were retrieved and chromosome counts were made from vegetative parts of three species. After designating a ploidy level to each of 810 registers, including all species and through the use of a geographic information system, their distributions were analyzed based on those ploidy levels. In addition, using a maximum likelihood model, a reconstruction of ancestral ploidy was made.Key results: Cosmos nitidus and C. ramirezianus are diploids (2n=2x=24) while C. pseudoperfoliatus is tetraploid (2n=4x=48). To date, chromosome counts for the 20 species of Cosmos section Discopoda are known, of which 12 are diploids (2n=2x), six are exclusively polyploids (2n=4x, 6x, 8x), four are diploids and polyploids and there are two independent events of aneuploidy. The reconstruction of ancestral ploidy levels revealed that x=12 is the basic number of chromosomes in this section of Cosmos.Conclusions: A correlation between the ploidy levels and geographical ranges of the species of Cosmos section Discopoda does not seem apparent. In contrast, there does seem to be an increase in ploidy levels from south to north, with a concentration of polyploids in the northern area of the Sierra Madre Occidental.Antecedentes y Objetivos: Cosmos secc. Discopoda (Asteraceae, Coreopsideae) es un modelo de estudio sobre poliploid铆a y aneuploid铆a. La secci贸n es monofil茅tica, agrupa 24 especies herb谩ceas perennes y existen especies poliploides y aneuploides. Sin embargo, no se conocen los n煤meros cromos贸micos para todas las especies y su citogeograf铆a no ha sido estudiada. El prop贸sito de la presente comunicaci贸n es dar a conocer conteos cromos贸micos para tres especies y discutir sobre el nivel de ploid铆a ancestral y patrones de distribuci贸n geogr谩fica de los niveles de ploid铆a en la secci贸n.M茅todos: Se realiz贸 una recopilaci贸n de los registros cromos贸micos y se realizaron conteos cromos贸micos para tres especies a partir de la preparaci贸n de estructuras vegetativas. Mediante un sistema de informaci贸n geogr谩fica y una base de datos geogr谩ficos con 810 registros, se analiz贸 la distribuci贸n geogr谩fica de niveles de ploid铆a asignando un nivel de ploid铆a a cada registro por especie. Adem谩s, se realiz贸 una reconstrucci贸n del nivel de ploid铆a ancestral mediante an谩lisis empleando un modelo de m谩xima verosimilitud.Resultados clave: Cosmos nitidus y C. ramirezianus son diploides (2n=2x=24) y C. pseudoperfoliatus es tetraploide (2n=4x=48). En Cosmos secc. Discopoda actualmente se conoce el n煤mero cromos贸mico de 20 especies, 12 son diploides (2n=2x), seis taxa son exclusivamente poliploides (2n=4x, 6x, 8x), cuatro son diploides y poliploides y existen dos eventos independientes de aneuploid铆a. La reconstrucci贸n del nivel de ploid铆a ancestral permite reconocer que x=12 es el n煤mero cromos贸mico b谩sico en la secci贸n.Conclusiones: Las especies de Cosmos secc. Discopoda no muestran una correlaci贸n entre los niveles de ploid铆a y sus rangos de distribuci贸n geogr谩fica. En contraste, existe un aumento del nivel de ploid铆a de sur a norte, con una concentraci贸n de poliploides en el norte de la Sierra Madre Occidental

    Aproximaciones ecol贸gicas al clima escolar en Bogot谩 : perfiles de riesgo, asociaciones con desempe帽o escolar y entornos escolares

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    En esta investigaci贸n se trabaja con la informaci贸n recolectada en el 2015 por la Secretar铆a de Educaci贸n del Distrito (SED) para caracterizar el clima escolar de los establecimientos educativos de la ciudad, y se eval煤a la medida en que diversos factores de riesgo social se manifiestan como prevalentes en una muestra de instituciones distritales
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