184 research outputs found

    Secret Gardeners: an ethnography of improvised music in Berlin (2012-13)

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    This thesis addresses the aesthetics, ideologies and practicalities of contemporary European Improvised Music-making - this term referring to the tradition that emerged from 1960s American jazz and free jazz, and that remains, arguably, one of today's most misunderstood and under-represented musical genres. Using a multidisciplinary approach drawing on Grounded Theory, Ethnography and Social Network Analysis, and bounded by Berlin's cosmopolitan local scene of 2012-13, I define Improvised Music as a field of differing-yet-interconnected practices, and show how musicians and listeners conceived of and differentiated between these sub-styles, as well as how they discovered and learned to appreciate such a hidden, 'difficult' and idiosyncratic art form. Whilst on the surface Improvised Music might appear chaotic and beyond analysis in conventional terms, I show that, just like any other music, Improvised Music has its own genre-specific conventions, structures and expectations, and this research investigates its specific modes of performance, listening and appreciation - including the need to distinguish between 'musical' and 'processual' improvisatory outcomes, to differentiate between different 'levels' of improvising, and to separate the group and personal levels of the improvisatory process. I define improvised practices within this ifeld as variable combinations of 'composed' (pre-planned) and 'improvised' (real-time) elements, and examine the specific definitions of 'risk', 'honesty', 'trust', and 'good' and `bad' music-making which mediate these choices - these distinctions and evaluatory frameworks leading to a set of proposed conventions and distinctions for Improvised Music listening and production. This study looks at the representation of identity by improvising musicians, the use of social and political models as analogies for the improvisatory process (including the interplay between personal freedom of expression and the construction of coherent collective outcomes), and also examines the multiple functions of recording, in a music that was ostensibly only meant for the moment of its creation. All of this serves to address several popular misconceptions concerning Improvised Music, and does so directly from the point of view of a large sample of its most important practitioners and connoisseurs. Such findings provide key insights into the appreciation and understanding of Improvised Music itself (both for newcomers and those already adept in its ways), and this thesis offers important suggestions for scholars of Musicology, Ethnomusicology, Sociology of Music, Improvisation Studies, Performance Studies and Music/Cognitive Psychology, as well as for those concerned with improvisation and creativity in more general, non-musical, terms

    Cloning and Joint Measurements of Incompatible Components of Spin

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    A joint measurement of two observables is a {\it simultaneous} measurement of both quantities upon the {\it same} quantum system. When two quantum-mechanical observables do not commute, then a joint measurement of these observables cannot be accomplished by projective measurements alone. In this paper we shall discuss the use of quantum cloning to perform a joint measurement of two components of spin associated with a qubit system. We introduce a cloning scheme which is optimal with respect to this task. This cloning scheme may be thought to work by cloning two components of spin onto its outputs. We compare the proposed cloning machine to existing cloners.Comment: 7 pages, 2 figures, submitted to PR

    The marine biology of law and human health

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    © Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 2015. This review uses a multidisciplinary approach to investigate legal issues concerning the oceans and human health. It firstly seeks to define the boundaries of oceans and human health research. We use three case studies as examples: biomedical research, marine litter and human well-being. Biomedical research raises complex issues relating to coastal states' sovereign rights to exploit their marine resources and the patenting processes. Coastal states have differing degrees of control over research at sea. There are differences in EU and US law over the status of genetic discoveries, with the US having stricter criteria to qualify for patent protection. International law sets the standard for bioprospecting in developing countries under the Nagoya Protocol. The cost and complexity of marine biomedical research mean that it cannot be left to commercial exploration and needs some public funding. The second case study highlights the rise in marine plastics pollution using Marine Conservation Society beachwatch data. It details the need to alter product design to avoid marine pollution and records an unsuccessful attempt by academics and an NGO to make contact with the manufacturers of one polluting product. It also introduces the concept that faulty design could amount to a public nuisance. The third case study highlights the potential health benefits from access to the coast and the statutory responsibility which sits with the US and UK authorities in the provision of well-being. It posits that there needs to be greater inter-agency coordination to promote access to the coast for human well-being

    Experimental investigation of continuous variable quantum teleportation

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    We report the experimental demonstration of quantum teleportation of the quadrature amplitudes of a light field. Our experiment was stably locked for long periods, and was analyzed in terms of fidelity, F; and with signal transfer, T_{q}=T^{+}+T^{-}, and noise correlation, V_{q}=V_{in|out}^{+} V_{in|out}^{-}. We observed an optimum fidelity of 0.64 +/- 0.02, T_{q}= 1.06 +/- 0.02 and V_{q} =0.96 +/- 0.10. We discuss the significance of both T_{q}>1 and V_{q}<1 and their relation to the teleportation no-cloning limit.Comment: 4 pages, 4 figure

    Global public policy, transnational policy communities, and their networks

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    Public policy has been a prisoner of the word "state." Yet, the state is reconfigured by globalization. Through "global public–private partnerships" and "transnational executive networks," new forms of authority are emerging through global and regional policy processes that coexist alongside nation-state policy processes. Accordingly, this article asks what is "global public policy"? The first part of the article identifies new public spaces where global policies occur. These spaces are multiple in character and variety and will be collectively referred to as the "global agora." The second section adapts the conventional policy cycle heuristic by conceptually stretching it to the global and regional levels to reveal the higher degree of pluralization of actors and multiple-authority structures than is the case at national levels. The third section asks: who is involved in the delivery of global public policy? The focus is on transnational policy communities. The global agora is a public space of policymaking and administration, although it is one where authority is more diffuse, decision making is dispersed and sovereignty muddled. Trapped by methodological nationalism and an intellectual agoraphobia of globalization, public policy scholars have yet to examine fully global policy processes and new managerial modes of transnational public administration

    Thermal behaviour of Anopheles stephensi in response to infection with malaria and fungal entomopathogens

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Temperature is a critical determinant of the development of malaria parasites in mosquitoes, and hence the geographic distribution of malaria risk, but little is known about the thermal preferences of <it>Anopheles</it>. A number of other insects modify their thermal behaviour in response to infection. These alterations can be beneficial for the insect or for the infectious agent. Given current interest in developing fungal biopesticides for control of mosquitoes, <it>Anopheles stephensi </it>were examined to test whether mosquitoes showed thermally-mediated behaviour in response to infection with fungal entomopathogens and the rodent malaria, <it>Plasmodium yoelii</it>.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>Over two experiments, groups of <it>An. stephensi </it>were infected with one of three entomopathogenic fungi, and/or <it>P. yoelii</it>. Infected and uninfected mosquitoes were released on to a thermal gradient (14 – 38°C) for "snapshot" assessments of thermal preference during the first five days post-infection. Mosquito survival was monitored for eight days and, where appropriate, oocyst prevalence and intensity was assessed.</p> <p>Results and conclusion</p> <p>Both infected and uninfected <it>An. stephensi </it>showed a non-random distribution on the gradient, indicating some capacity to behaviourally thermoregulate. However, chosen resting temperatures were not altered by any of the infections. There is thus no evidence that thermally-mediated behaviours play a role in determining malaria prevalence or that they will influence the performance of fungal biopesticides against adult <it>Anopheles</it>.</p

    Graveyards on the Move: The Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Dead Ophiocordyceps-Infected Ants

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    Parasites are likely to play an important role in structuring host populations. Many adaptively manipulate host behaviour, so that the extended phenotypes of these parasites and their distributions in space and time are potentially important ecological variables. The fungus Ophiocordyceps unilateralis, which is pan-tropical in distribution, causes infected worker ants to leave their nest and die under leaves in the understory of tropical rainforests. Working in a forest dynamic plot in Southern Thailand we mapped the occurrence of these dead ants by examining every leaf in 1,360 m2 of primary rainforest. We established that high density aggregations exist (up to 26 dead ants/m2), which we coined graveyards. We further established that graveyards are patchily distributed in a landscape with no or very few O. unilateralis-killed ants. At some, but not all, spatial scales of analysis the density of dead ants correlated with temperature, humidity and vegetation cover. Remarkably, having found 2243 dead ants inside graveyards we only found 2 live ants of the principal host, ant Camponotus leonardi, suggesting that foraging host ants actively avoid graveyards. We discovered that the principal host ant builds nests in high canopy and its trails only occasionally descend to the forest floor where infection occurs. We advance the hypothesis that rare descents may be a function of limited canopy access to tree crowns and that resource profitability of such trees is potentially traded off against the risk of losing workers due to infection when forest floor trails are the only access routes. Our work underscores the need for an integrative approach that recognises multiple facets of parasitism, such as their extended phenotypes

    Identification of Radiopure Titanium for the LZ Dark Matter Experiment and Future Rare Event Searches

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    The LUX-ZEPLIN (LZ) experiment will search for dark matter particle interactions with a detector containing a total of 10 tonnes of liquid xenon within a double-vessel cryostat. The large mass and proximity of the cryostat to the active detector volume demand the use of material with extremely low intrinsic radioactivity. We report on the radioassay campaign conducted to identify suitable metals, the determination of factors limiting radiopure production, and the selection of titanium for construction of the LZ cryostat and other detector components. This titanium has been measured with activities of 238^{238}Ue_{e}~<<1.6~mBq/kg, 238^{238}Ul_{l}~<<0.09~mBq/kg, 232^{232}The_{e}~=0.28±0.03=0.28\pm 0.03~mBq/kg, 232^{232}Thl_{l}~=0.25±0.02=0.25\pm 0.02~mBq/kg, 40^{40}K~<<0.54~mBq/kg, and 60^{60}Co~<<0.02~mBq/kg (68\% CL). Such low intrinsic activities, which are some of the lowest ever reported for titanium, enable its use for future dark matter and other rare event searches. Monte Carlo simulations have been performed to assess the expected background contribution from the LZ cryostat with this radioactivity. In 1,000 days of WIMP search exposure of a 5.6-tonne fiducial mass, the cryostat will contribute only a mean background of 0.160±0.0010.160\pm0.001(stat)±0.030\pm0.030(sys) counts.Comment: 13 pages, 3 figures, accepted for publication in Astroparticle Physic

    Lethal and Pre-Lethal Effects of a Fungal Biopesticide Contribute to Substantial and Rapid Control of Malaria Vectors

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    Rapidly emerging insecticide resistance is creating an urgent need for new active ingredients to control the adult mosquitoes that vector malaria. Biopesticides based on the spores of entomopathogenic fungi have shown considerable promise by causing very substantial mortality within 7–14 days of exposure. This mortality will generate excellent malaria control if there is a high likelihood that mosquitoes contact fungi early in their adult lives. However, where contact rates are lower, as might result from poor pesticide coverage, some mosquitoes will contact fungi one or more feeding cycles after they acquire malaria, and so risk transmitting malaria before the fungus kills them. Critics have argued that ‘slow acting’ fungal biopesticides are, therefore, incapable of delivering malaria control in real-world contexts. Here, utilizing standard WHO laboratory protocols, we demonstrate effective action of a biopesticide much faster than previously reported. Specifically, we show that transient exposure to clay tiles sprayed with a candidate biopesticide comprising spores of a natural isolate of Beauveria bassiana, could reduce malaria transmission potential to zero within a feeding cycle. The effect resulted from a combination of high mortality and rapid fungal-induced reduction in feeding and flight capacity. Additionally, multiple insecticide-resistant lines from three key African malaria vector species were completely susceptible to fungus. Thus, fungal biopesticides can block transmission on a par with chemical insecticides, and can achieve this where chemical insecticides have little impact. These results support broadening the current vector control paradigm beyond fast-acting chemical toxins
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