7 research outputs found

    The Environmental and Economic Effects of European Emissions Trading

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    In 2005, the EU introduced an emissions trading system in order to pursue its Kyoto obligations. This instrument gives emitters the flexibility to undertake reduction measures in the most cost-efficient way and mobilizes market forces for the protection of the earth's climate. In this paper, we analyse the effects of emissions trading in Europe, with some special reference to the case of Germany. We look at the value of the flexibility gained by trading compared to fixed quotas. The analysis will be undertaken with a modified version of the GTAP-E model using the latest GTAP version 6 data base. It is based on the national allocation plans as submitted to and approved by the EU. We find that, if the NAP is combined with a regional emissions trading scheme, then Germany, Great Britain, and Czech Republic are the main sellers of emissions permits, while Belgium, Denmark, Finland, and Sweden are the main buyers. The welfare gains from regional emissions trading - for the trading sectors only - are largest for Belgium, Denmark, and Great Britain; smaller for Finland, Sweden, and smallest for Germany and other regions. When we take into account the economy-wide and terms of trade effects of emissions trading, however, the (negative) terms of trade effects can offset the (positive) allocative efficiency gains for the cases of the Netherland and Italy, while all other regions ended up with positive net welfare gains. All regions, however, experienced positive increases in real GDP as a result of regional emissions trading.

    Методи та математичні моделі сучасних інформаційно-комунікаційних технологій

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    Мета роботи – розроблення методів, моделей та інформаційних технологій підвищення функціональної ефективності систем підтримки прийняття рішень в освіті та промисловості. Предмет дослідження – методи, моделі та інформаційні технології прийняття рішень в освіті та промисловості, оцінка функціональної ефективності інтелектуальних систем аналізу даних, методи захисту інформації в інфокомунікаційних системах, інформаційно-аналітичні системи в освіті

    The Environmental and Economic Effects of European Emissions Trading in Germany

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    In 2005, the EU introduced an emissions trading system in order to pursue its Kyoto obligations. This instrument gives emitters the flexibility to undertake reduction measures in the most cost-efficient way and mobilizes market forces for the protection of the earth’s climate. In this paper, we analyse the effects of emissions trading in Europe, especially the value of the flexibility gained by trading compared to fixed quotas. The analysis will be undertaken with a modified version of the GTAP-E model using the latest GTAP data base. It is based on the national allocation plans as submitted to and in most cases approved by the EU

    Influence of Laser Beam Wobbling Parameters on Microstructure and Properties of 316L Stainless Steel Multi Passed Repaired Parts

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    The results of experimental studies of repair of the supporting structure components made of 316L steel multi-pass laser cladding with filler wire are presented. The influence of the wobbling mode parameters, welding speed, and laser power on the formation of the deposited metal during multi-pass laser cladding with filler wire of 316L steel samples into a narrow slot groove, 6 mm deep and 3 mm wide, are shown. Non-destructive testing, metallographic studies, and mechanical tests of the deposited metal before and after heat treatment (2 h at 450 °C) were carried out. Based on the results of experimental studies, the optimal modes of laser beam wobbling were selected (amplitude—1.3 mm, frequency—100 Hz) at which the formation of a bead of optimal dimensions (height—1672 μm, width—3939 μm, depth of penetration into the substrate—776 μm) was ensured. A laser cladding technology with ESAB OK Autrode 316L filler wire has been developed, which has successfully passed the certification for conformity with the ISO 15614-11 standard. Studies of the chemical elements’ distribution before and after heat treatment showed that, after heat treatment along the grain boundaries, particles with a significantly higher Mo content (5.50%) were found in the sample, presumably precipitated phases. Microstructure studies and microhardness measurements showed that the upper part metal of the third pass, which has a lower microhardness (75% of base metal), higher ferrite content, and differently oriented dendritic austenite, significantly differs from the rest of the cladded metal

    Prospective observational cohort study on grading the severity of postoperative complications in global surgery research

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    Background The Clavien–Dindo classification is perhaps the most widely used approach for reporting postoperative complications in clinical trials. This system classifies complication severity by the treatment provided. However, it is unclear whether the Clavien–Dindo system can be used internationally in studies across differing healthcare systems in high- (HICs) and low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Methods This was a secondary analysis of the International Surgical Outcomes Study (ISOS), a prospective observational cohort study of elective surgery in adults. Data collection occurred over a 7-day period. Severity of complications was graded using Clavien–Dindo and the simpler ISOS grading (mild, moderate or severe, based on guided investigator judgement). Severity grading was compared using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Data are presented as frequencies and ICC values (with 95 per cent c.i.). The analysis was stratified by income status of the country, comparing HICs with LMICs. Results A total of 44 814 patients were recruited from 474 hospitals in 27 countries (19 HICs and 8 LMICs). Some 7508 patients (16·8 per cent) experienced at least one postoperative complication, equivalent to 11 664 complications in total. Using the ISOS classification, 5504 of 11 664 complications (47·2 per cent) were graded as mild, 4244 (36·4 per cent) as moderate and 1916 (16·4 per cent) as severe. Using Clavien–Dindo, 6781 of 11 664 complications (58·1 per cent) were graded as I or II, 1740 (14·9 per cent) as III, 2408 (20·6 per cent) as IV and 735 (6·3 per cent) as V. Agreement between classification systems was poor overall (ICC 0·41, 95 per cent c.i. 0·20 to 0·55), and in LMICs (ICC 0·23, 0·05 to 0·38) and HICs (ICC 0·46, 0·25 to 0·59). Conclusion Caution is recommended when using a treatment approach to grade complications in global surgery studies, as this may introduce bias unintentionally

    Critical care admission following elective surgery was not associated with survival benefit: prospective analysis of data from 27 countries