68 research outputs found

    The Universe as a System: Ibn Sīnā’s Cosmology Revisited

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    This article explores Ibn Sīnā’s cosmological views and analyzes the underlying assumptions and arguments in support of the theories to which he subscribes. These include the notions of the central and stationary position of the earth in a finite, spherical cosmos, the impossibility of the existence of many universes, and the metaphysical forces that drive, guide, and maintain the perpetual movement of cosmic bodie

    Sufi Epistemology: Ibn 'Arabi on Knowledge

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    This paper discusses the definition and sources of knowledge according to Ibn 'Arabi, the leading Sufi master of Andalusia (Muslim Spain)

    Causality in Islamic Philosophy: The Arguments of Ibn Sīnā

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    This article is intended to provide insight into aspects of Ibn Sīnā’s natural philosophy. It will summarize his interpretation of the Aristotelian four causes, explicate his theory of efficient and necessary causal linkage, and analyze his arguments for causal efficacy. Finally, it will discuss Ibn Sīnā’s views on chance happenings in nature

    Preserving the semantic structure of Islamic key terms and concepts: Izutsu, al-Attas, and al-Raghib al-Isfahani

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    This article compares the elucidation of the semantic structure and fixity of a number of key terms and concepts of the Qur'an by two contemporary scholars, Toshihiko Izutsu (1914-1993) and Syed Muhammad Naquib al-Attas (1931--), with that of al-Raghib al-Isfahani (d. ca 443/1060), the author of the celebrated Kitab al-mufradat fi gharib al-Qur'an. By 'key terms and concepts' are meant those words used by the Qur'an which play a decisive role in making up the basic conceptual structure of the Qur'anic worldview. The article shows how the Qur'an profoundly changed and subsequently fixed the meaning of Arabic terms, particularly those key terms relating to religion and ethics, and it highlights the fact that the contemporary semantic analysis of the Qur'anic vocabulary has its precedent in the fifth/eleventh century

    Divine Emanation as Cosmic Origin: Ibn Sīnā and His Critics

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    The question of cosmic beginning has always attracted considerable attention from serious thinkers past and present. Among many contesting theories that have emerged, that of emanation was appropriated by Muslim philosophers like Ibn Sînâ in order to reconcile the Aristotelian doctrine of the eternity of matter with the teaching of al-Qur’ân on the One Creator-God. According to this theory, the universe, which comprises a multitude of entities, is generated from a transcendent Being, the One, that is unitary, through the medium of a hierarchy of immaterial substances. While the ultimate source is undiminished, the beings which are emanated are progressively less perfect as they are further removed from the first principle. The process is conceived as being atemporal and often compared to the efflux of light from a luminous body, or to water flowing from a spring. This metaphysical theory has enabled Ibn Sînâ to solve the vexed problem: given an eternally existing world and one eternally existing God, how can the two necessarily co-exist without having the perfect, simple unity of God destroyed by contact with the multiplicity of material things? The following essay delineates and evaluates both Ibn Sînâ’s arguments as well as the counter-arguments of his critics

    Al-Qur'an, Orientalisme dan Luxenberg

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    The article focuses on issues related to the Qur'an, Orientalism and the controversial writer Christoph Luxenberg. A brief survey on studies by the Orientalist on the Qur'an is presented. It explains some critical confusions and misunderstandings by the Orientalist concerning the Qur'an especially that related to the authenticity of the Qur'an, as well as its writing and recitation tradition. The application of the philological methods used in the Biblical studies on the Qur'an is discussed. The article ends with a critical analysis on Luxenberg's Die syro-aramaische Lesart des Koran: Ein Beitrag zur Entschliisselung der Koransprache

    Identifikasi Akuifer Air Tanah Dengan Metode Geolistirk Resistivitas Konfigurasi Schlumberger Untuk Pengembangan Irigasi Persawahan Di Dusun Tampak Siring, Mantang

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    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui litologi lapisan bawah permukaan dan mengetahui kedalaman akuifer untuk rekomendasi pengeboran dalam menggembangkan irigasi untuk persawahan. Lokasi penelitian bertempat di Dusun Tampak Siring, Mantang, Kabupaten Lombok Tengah. Pengambilan data dilakukan pada 2 titik sounding dengan lintasan sepanjang 400 meter menggunakan Metode Geolistrik Tahanan Jenis dengan Konfigurasi Schlumberger. Data diolah  menggunakan software Ms. Excel dan IPI2Win untuk memperoleh nilai resistivitas, ketebalan dan kedalaman lapisan. Pada penelitian ini didapatkan litologi bawah permukaan daerah survey terdiri dari 5 lapisan yaitu  lapisan pertama berupa tanah penutup , pasiran lepas di bagian atas, lapisan konduktif berupa lempung, lapisan alluvium  (tanah berpasir) yang mengandung air, lapisan breksi yang tak terlalu massif dengan perselingan  pasir dan gravel (kerikil). lapisan akuifer pembawa air yaitu berupa lapisan breksi lapuk, tufa pasiran dan kerikil. Berdasarkan penelitian ini lapisan akuifer berada pada titik VES 1 dan VES 2 yaitu pada lapisan ketiga dan lapisan kelima. Pada titik VES 1 lapisan akuifer terdapat pada kedalaman 5,3 – 12,57 m (air permukaan) dan kedalaman >37,59 m  dengan nilai tahanan jenis jenis 65,8 Ωm dan  29,8 Ωm. Pada titik VES 2 lapisan akuifer terdapat pada kedalaman 3,375 – 8,665 m (air permukaan) dan kedalaman >33,76 m  dengan nilai tahanan jenis jenis 21,9 Ωm dan  20,6 Ωm

    Pemetaan Potensi Air Tanah Menggunakan Metode Geolistrik Resistivitas 1-D di Desa Rasabou, Kecamatan Hu’u, Kabupaten Dompu

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    Air merupakan kebutuhan pokok bagi kehidupan manusia. Peningkatan jumlah penduduk berdampak pada peningkatan jumlah kebutuhan air namun dalam pengelolaannya air yang disediakan tidak sesuai dengan jumlah yang dibutuhkan sehingga diperlukan penelitian tentang pemetaan potensi air tanah untuk kebutuhan air bersih bagi masyarakat. Penelitian ini dilakukan di Desa Rasabou, Kecamatan Hu’u, Kabupaten Dompu, Nusa Tenggara Barat. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui potensi airtanah pada akuifer dan jenis litologi, kedalaman, dan ketebalan akuifer airtanah berdasarkan resistivitas jenis batuan. Akuisisi data pada penelitian ini dilakukan dengan menggunakan metode geolistrik konfigurasi Schlumberger 1-D. Pengukuran dilakukan pada 3 (tiga) titik sounding dengan panjang bentangan 400 meter – 600 meter. Berdasarkan hasil pengolahan data Ip2Win 1D, diketahui bahwa litologi bawah permukaan daerah penelitian terdiri dari lapisan tanah penutup, lempung, breksi retak-retak, dan pasir. Jenis lapisan pembawa air tanah berupa lapisan akuitar dan akuifer. Lapisan akuitar berupa lapisan lempung dan breksi retak-retak, sedangkan lapisan akuifer berupa lapisan pasir. Potensi air tanah yang paling besar untuk dilakukan pengeboran sumur yaitu pada titik sounding VES-02 dan VES-03, dengan kedalaman pengeboran mencapai 135 m dan 60 m. Ketebalan lapisan akuifer pada titik sonding VES-02 dan VES-03 yaitu 97 m dan 60 m
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