509 research outputs found

    Key factors and barriers to the adoption of cold ironing in europe

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    The first cases of successful implementation of cold ironing can be found in Alaska about twenty years ago. In that case, the energy cost was lower than in Europe where cold ironing has been developed only in the latest years at few ports. The present paper investigates the innovative process of cold ironing at European level. Firstly, its recent development in Europe is documented as well as the main concern of its corresponding legislation. Then, the adoption of this initiative by the “green ports” concept is discussed. Secondly, the technical barriers, such as lack of standardization of electricity parameters are mentioned. And given that port electrical infrastructure needed onshore represents a huge investment that not all ports are financially able to do, the financial problematic is treated explicitly taking into account the cost of energy at ports (directly provided by electric centrals or converted) against the energy cost onboard. Finally, conclusions are drawn covering the main barriers confronted by this technology and the future premises of cold ironing at European ports considering the social and environmental benefits in terms of air and noise pollution.cold ironing, energy cost, technology barrier, European ports, environmenta

    Recent advances in flood forecasting and flood risk assessment

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    International audienceRecent large floods in Europe have led to increased interest in research and development of flood forecasting systems. Some of these events have been provoked by some of the wettest rainfall periods on record which has led to speculation that such extremes are attributable in some measure to anthropogenic global warming and represent the beginning of a period of higher flood frequency. Whilst current trends in extreme event statistics will be difficult to discern, conclusively, there has been a substantial increase in the frequency of high floods in the 20th century for basins greater than 2x105 km2. There is also increasing that anthropogenic forcing of climate change may lead to an increased probability of extreme precipitation and, hence, of flooding. There is, therefore, major emphasis on the improvement of operational flood forecasting systems in Europe, with significant European Community spending on research and development on prototype forecasting systems and flood risk management projects. This Special Issue synthesises the most relevant scientific and technological results presented at the International Conference on Flood Forecasting in Europe held in Rotterdam from 3-5 March 2003. During that meeting 150 scientists, forecasters and stakeholders from four continents assembled to present their work and current operational best practice and to discuss future directions of scientific and technological efforts in flood prediction and prevention. The papers presented at the conference fall into seven themes, as follows

    Sinus Floor Elevation with Modified Crestal Approach and Single Loaded Short Implants: A Case Report with 4 Years of Follow-Up

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    Tooth extraction is usually followed by bone reduction. In the maxillary posterior region, this remodelling combined with sinus pneumatisation and periodontal defects may lead to a reduced basal bone height available for implant placement. Sinus floor elevation can be performed with different surgical techniques. Crestal approach has demonstrated to be effective, less invasive, and associated with a reduced morbidity. This article reports a modified sinus floor elevation by means of rotary, noncutting instruments, addition of xenograft, and 2 short-threaded implant placements. The aim of the study was to evaluate the implant’s success and intrasinus radiographical bone gain after 4 years of functional loading. The premolar implant site presented a starting basal bone height of 6 mm, while the molar site was of 2 mm. In the first surgical step, sinus floor elevation was performed mesially and the implant was inserted, and distally only sinus floor elevation was performed. After 6 months, the mesial implant was uncovered and the second implant was inserted; 4 months later, the second fixture was uncovered, and both fixtures were loaded with single provisional screw-retained crowns and later with single screw-retained porcelain fused to metal crowns. Implants integrated successfully, and crestal bone remodelling did not exceed the smooth collar. Bone gain was 3 mm for the mesial implant and more than 5 mm for the distal one
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