74 research outputs found

    Back to ƚunaáž„Ć›epa: Remarks on the gestation of the Indian literary narrative

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    Kehyskertomuksen synty ja kehitys Intian sanskritinkielisessÀ kirjallisuudessa veda-ajasta ajanlaskun alkuun

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    The dissertation is interdisciplinary: it is divided between South Asian studies and comparative literature. Its special area is Sanskrit literature. It investigates first frame structures in Vedic literature (ca. 1200 - 500 BCE) and follows the development of the frame to the age of the epics Mahābhārata and Rāmāyaáč‡a (ca. 400 BCE - 300 CE). In the material, the “omphalos” and dialogue hymns of the áčšgveda and the narratives embedded in late Vedic commentaries (Brāhmaáč‡as) receive special attention. Later on the emphasis is on the frames, levels and narrators of the Mahābhārata. In the analysis methods of narratology are used, above all theories and concepts concerning frame structures, with reference to such theorists as Wolf Schmid, Monika Fludernik and William Nelles. Samples from chosen texts are analysed paying attention to narrative technique, narrative levels, narrators, narratees and narrative situation. The questions of text types, defitions of the frame and the narrative, and the literalization of oral tradition are also discussed in the light of the material. The study provides a history of the frame in Vedic and pre-classical Indian literature. It shows that framing structures are found in Vedic literature, and that this literary strategy has roots in continuous tradition of preserving texts inside other texts. It challenges “the theory of ritual origin” for the frame and introduces a stronger textual model for it. The wide scope of material, which is partly extremely hard to analyse and describe for others than specialists, has been a challenge. However, this also makes the study topical, original and valuable: so far there has been no comprehensive literary history of the frame in India. These results are reached by the analysis mentioned above, and by comparing early examples of Vedic literature with later ones, and Vedic material with epic material. In addition, the study gives information of various types, uses and functions of the frame, sketches a model of “tripartite narrative strategy” established by the Mahābhārata and proposes three general models for the literary frame in India: the Vedic, the Epic and the conversational frame. The third is “a master model” which challenges the standard definitions of the narrative and the frame.VĂ€itöskirja on poikkitieteellinen: sen oppialat ovat EtelĂ€-Aasian tutkimus ja yleinen kirjallisuustiede. Se kĂ€sittelee kehyskertomusrakenteen syntyĂ€ ja kehitystĂ€ Intian kirjallisuudessa ajanjaksolla 1200 eaa - 300 jaa. TĂ€rkeimpĂ€nĂ€ tutkimusmateriaalina ovat Rigvedan runot (1200 - 1000 eaa), Brahmanat eli vedan selitystekstit, joihin on upotettu tarinoita (900 - 600 eaa), ja Mahabharata-eepos (500 eaa - 300 eaa). SanskritinkielistĂ€ materiaalia on lĂ€hestytty sekĂ€ perinteisen filologian ettĂ€ modernin kirjallisuustieteen, etupÀÀssĂ€ narratologian keinoin. NĂ€in laajaa poikkitieteellistĂ€ tutkimusta ei aiheesta ole koskaan ennen tehty. Tutkimuksen pÀÀtavoite on ollut kuvata, miten kehyskertomusrakenne syntyi ja kehittyi. Vanhemman veda-ajan aineistoa on sen lĂ€hes ylittĂ€mĂ€ttömĂ€stĂ€ vaikeudesta huolimatta analysoitu narratologian vĂ€lineillĂ€, jotta voitaisiin tunnistaa kehysrakenteen varhaismuotoja ja tekstuaalisen kehystĂ€misen periaatteiden kehittymistĂ€. Toinen suururakka on ollut avata jĂ€ttilĂ€ismĂ€inen Mahabharata-eepos analyysille, jota myös narratologit voisivat hyödyntÀÀ. Pyrkimys on ollut osoittaa, ettĂ€ kehysrakenne on ollut Intiassa tĂ€rkeĂ€ ja jopa ainoa keino vĂ€littÀÀ kertomusperinnetta ja siirtÀÀ sitĂ€ katoavasta suullisesta traditiosta kirjalliseen. Kirjallisten aiheiden ja tarinoiden systemaattinen kierrĂ€tys lĂ€pi vuosisatojen on työn punainen lanka. Tutkimuksessa on haluttu saattaa hankalasti avautuva materiaali osaksi nykyaikaista narratologista keskustelua. Siihen sisĂ€ltyy myös narratologian kannalta haastavia hypoteeseja, jotka koskevat narratiivin ja kehyskertomuksen mÀÀritelmiĂ€ ja tekstityyppien rajoja. EtelĂ€-Aasian tutkimuksen alalla vĂ€itöskirja kyseenalaistaa kehyksen synnystĂ€ aiemmin esitetyn ns. rituaaliteorian ja pyrkii kehittĂ€mÀÀn sitĂ€ vahvemman tekstilĂ€htöisen mallin. Tavoitteet ovat kunnianhimoisia, joten työ on laaja. Vaikka kaikkiin kysymyksiin ei ole löytynyt eikĂ€ ole haluttu antaakaan vastausta materiaalin erikoisluonteen takia, vĂ€itöskirjan tulokset tuovat uutta tietoa ja ennen kaikkea tuoreita nĂ€kökulmia vanhaan aineistoon. Kaukaisen kulttuurin ikivanhat tekstit ovat koulutetuille tutkijoillekin monien muurien takana. On silti syytĂ€ koettaa purkaa perinnettĂ€, jossa kirjallisuudentutkimuksen materiaali rajautuu moderniin lĂ€ntiseen kulttuuriin. SitĂ€ seuraa teoreettisia vinoutumia. Siksikin uskon, ettĂ€ vĂ€itöskirjatyöni on uraauurtava

    An open web-based GIS service for biomass data in Finland

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    Reliable, up-to-date biomass data are needed for climate change mitigation and resource efficiency. Therefore, a calculation and reporting tool with thematic maps and data was developed. A free web-tool, Biomass Atlas, collects the spatial distribution of biomasses in Finland. Over 300 data layers present land use, cultivation, residual biomasses from forest, crop production, animal husbandry, municipalities, and industry at 1 km2 spatial resolution. The service enables calculations of biomass amount in a defined geographical area of interest and examining the opportunities and restrictions to utilise biomasses. The service was evaluated with six test-users in laboratory tests and 20 voluntary pilot test-users. Biomass Atlas shows the regional potential of biomaterials, fertilizer products, and renewable energy, as well as potential targets for utilized, recyclable biomass. Other possible uses include monitoring plant cover on fields and assessing land use diversity. Application enables users with no experience in GIS or biomass assessments to analyse biomass resources, produce maps and data summaries for decision making.© 2024 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).fi=vertaisarvioitu|en=peerReviewed

    Sources and sinks of greenhouse gases in the landscape : Approach for spatially explicit estimates

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    Climate change mitigation is a global response that requires actions at the local level. Quantifying local sources and sinks of greenhouse gases (GHG) facilitate evaluating mitigation options. We present an approach to collate spatially explicit estimated fluxes of GHGs (carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide) for main land use sectors in the landscape, to aggregate, and to calculate the net emissions of an entire region. Our procedure was developed and tested in a large river basin in Finland, providing information from intensively studied eLTER research sites. To evaluate the full GHG balance, fluxes from natural ecosystems (lakes, rivers, and undrained mires) were included together with fluxes from anthropogenic activities, agriculture and forestry. We quantified the fluxes based on calculations with an anthropogenic emissions model (FRES) and a forest growth and carbon balance model (PREBAS), as well as on emission coefficients from the literature regarding emissions from lakes, rivers, undrained mires, peat extraction sites and cropland. Spatial data sources included CORINE land use data, soil map, lake and river shorelines, national forest inventory data, and statistical data on anthropogenic activities. Emission uncertainties were evaluated with Monte Carlo simulations. Artificial surfaces were the most emission intensive land-cover class. Lakes and rivers were about as emission intensive as arable land. Forests were the dominant land cover in the region (66%), and the C sink of the forests decreased the total emissions of the region by 72%. The region's net emissions amounted to 4.37 +/- 1.43 Tg CO2-eq yr(-1), corresponding to a net emission intensity 0.16 Gg CO2-eq km(-2) yr(-1), and estimated per capita net emissions of 5.6 Mg CO2-eq yr(-1). Our landscape approach opens opportunities to examine the sensitivities of important GHG fluxes to changes in land use and climate, management actions, and mitigation of anthropogenic emissions. (C) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.peerReviewe

    Heterozygous TLR3 Mutation in Patients with Hantavirus Encephalitis

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    Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is common in Northern Europe; this infection is usually self-limited and severe complications are uncommon. PUUV and other hantaviruses, however, can rarely cause encephalitis. The pathogenesis of these rare and severe events is unknown. In this study, we explored the possibility that genetic defects in innate anti-viral immunity, as analogous to Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) mutations seen in HSV-1 encephalitis, may explain PUUV encephalitis. We completed exome sequencing of seven adult patients with encephalitis or encephalomyelitis during acute PUUV infection. We found heterozygosity for the TLR3 p.L742F novel variant in two of the seven unrelated patients (29%,p = 0.0195). TLR3-deficient P2.1 fibrosarcoma cell line and SV40-immortalized fibroblasts (SV40-fibroblasts) from patient skin expressing mutant or wild-type TLR3 were tested functionally. The TLR3 p.L742F allele displayed low poly(I:C)-stimulated cytokine induction when expressed in P2.1 cells. SV40-fibroblasts from three healthy controls produced increasing levels of IFN-lambda and IL-6 after 24 h of stimulation with increasing concentrations of poly(I:C), whereas the production of the cytokines was impaired in TLR3 L742F/WT patient SV40-fibroblasts. Heterozygous TLR3 mutation may underlie not only HSV-1 encephalitis but also PUUV hantavirus encephalitis. Such possibility should be further explored in encephalitis caused by these and other hantaviruses.Peer reviewe

    Heterozygous TLR3 Mutation in Patients with Hantavirus Encephalitis

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    Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is common in Northern Europe; this infection is usually self-limited and severe complications are uncommon. PUUV and other hantaviruses, however, can rarely cause encephalitis. The pathogenesis of these rare and severe events is unknown. In this study, we explored the possibility that genetic defects in innate anti-viral immunity, as analogous to Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) mutations seen in HSV-1 encephalitis, may explain PUUV encephalitis. We completed exome sequencing of seven adult patients with encephalitis or encephalomyelitis during acute PUUV infection. We found heterozygosity for the TLR3 p.L742F novel variant in two of the seven unrelated patients (29%,p = 0.0195). TLR3-deficient P2.1 fibrosarcoma cell line and SV40-immortalized fibroblasts (SV40-fibroblasts) from patient skin expressing mutant or wild-type TLR3 were tested functionally. The TLR3 p.L742F allele displayed low poly(I:C)-stimulated cytokine induction when expressed in P2.1 cells. SV40-fibroblasts from three healthy controls produced increasing levels of IFN-lambda and IL-6 after 24 h of stimulation with increasing concentrations of poly(I:C), whereas the production of the cytokines was impaired in TLR3 L742F/WT patient SV40-fibroblasts. Heterozygous TLR3 mutation may underlie not only HSV-1 encephalitis but also PUUV hantavirus encephalitis. Such possibility should be further explored in encephalitis caused by these and other hantaviruses
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