95 research outputs found

    Die Christelike en die tragiese: intreerede aan die Universiteit Rhodes

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    Inaugural lecture delivered at Rhodes UniversityRhodes University Libraries (Digitisation

    Assessing the impact of fusion-based additive manufacturing technologies on green supply chain management performance

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    Funding Information: Inês A. Ferreira acknowledges financial support from Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia for funding PhD Grant (REF: SFRH/BD/145448/2019). The authors Inês A. Ferreira, J.P. Oliveira and Helena Carvalho acknowledge Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT–MCTES) for its financial support via the project UIDB/00667/2020 (UNIDEMI). J.P. Oliveira acknowledges funding by national funds from Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, I.P., in the scope of the projects LA/P/0037/2020, UIDP/50025/2020 and UIDB/50025/2020 of the Associate Laboratory Institute of Nanostructures, Nanomodelling and Nanofabrication–i3N. This activity has received funding from the European Institute of Innovation and Technology (EIT) – Project Smart WAAM: Microstructural Engineering and Integrated Non-Destructive Testing. This body of the European Union receives support from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program. Publisher Copyright: © 2022, Inês A. Ferreira, J.P. Oliveira, Joachim Antonissen and Helena Carvalho.Purpose: This paper aims to identify the impacts of wire and arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) technology on the green supply chain management (GSCM) performance. Also, it intends to identify the most essential WAAM capabilities. Design/methodology/approach: An exploratory case study related to a metallurgical company using WAAM technology to repair metallic components was developed. A research framework to identify WAAM production capabilities and the different GSCM performance criteria was proposed based on the current state of the art. Primary qualitative data provided evidence for developing seven propositions relating WAAM capabilities to GSCM performance. Findings: The paper provides empirical evidence relating to how WAAM production capabilities impact the different performance criteria of the GSCM performance. The results show that “relative advantage” and “supply-side benefits” are critical capabilities developed through WAAM. Furthermore, most of the capabilities regarding “relative advantage” and “supply-side benefits” promote a higher GSCM performance. Research limitations/implications: This research was carried out using a single case study research design and using qualitative data. Thus, future works are encouraged to test the propositions empirically using quantitative methodologies. Practical implications: The case study findings support that most WAAM production capabilities promote a higher GSCM performance. Managers could use this research to understand the capabilities developed by this fusion-based additive manufacturing (AM), become aware of the implications of new technology adoption on the supply chain environmental externalities, and develop new business models based on the WAAM capabilities. Originality/value: This research contributes to expanding the state-of-the art related to WAAM technology by evidencing the relationship between adopting this fusion-based AM technology and green supply chain practices. Also, it provides a set of seven propositions that could be used to theorise the impacts of WAAM adoption on the GSCM performance.publishersversionpublishe

    Six Years Follow-up of the Levels of TNF-α and IL-6 in Patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type 1

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    In an earlier study, levels of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 are higher in blisters fluid from the complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS1) side obtained at 6 and 30 months (median) after the initial event. The aim of this follow-up study is to determine the involvement of these cytokines in long lasting CRPS1. Twelve CRPS1 patients, with median disease duration of 72 months, participated. The levels of TNF-α and IL-6 were measured in blister fluid; disease activity was reevaluated by measuring pain and differences in temperature, volume, and mobility between both extremities. Differences in levels of IL-6 and TNF-α and mobility between both sides were significantly decreased. Pain and differences in temperature and volume were not significantly altered. No correlation was found between the cytokines and the disease characteristics. These results indicate that IL-6 and TNF-α are only partially responsible for the signs and symptoms of CRPS1

    Six years follow-up of the levels of TNF-α and IL-6 in patients with complex regional pain syndrome type 1

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    In an earlier study, levels of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 are higher in blisters fluid from the complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS1) side obtained at 6 and 30 months (median) after the initial event. The aim of this follow-up study is to determine the involvement of these cytokines in long lasting CRPS1. Twelve CRPS1 patients, with median disease duration of 72 months, participated. The levels of TNF-α and IL-6 were measured in blister fluid; disease activity was reevaluated by measuring pain and differences in temperature, volume, and mobility between both extremities. Differences in levels of IL-6 and TNF-α and mobility between both sides were significantly decreased. Pain and differences in temperature and volume were not significantly altered. No correlation was found between the cytokines and the disease characteristics. These results indicate that IL-6 and TNF-α are only partially responsible for the signs and symptoms of CRPS1.</p

    Intermediate Stage Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type 1 Is Unrelated to Proinflammatory Cytokines

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    The aim of this paper is to determine the involvement of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-6 in intermediate CRPS 1 as locally formed mediators of inflammation. In this study, 25 patients with proven CRPS 1 (Bruehl criteria) were included. All patients participated in one of our earlier studies during the acute stage of their disease. After the disease developed into an intermediate stage, both the disease activity and the profile of inflammatory mediators were reevaluated. Disease activity and impairment were determined by means of a visual analogue scale, the McGill Pain Questionnaire, the difference in volume and temperature between the involved and uninvolved extremities, and the reduction in active range of motion of the involved extremity. Suction blisters were made on the involved and uninvolved extremities for measurement of IL-6 and TNF-α. A significant improvement in signs and symptoms of impairment was found. However, the levels of IL-6 and TNF-α in blister fluid in the involved extremity versus uninvolved extremity were still significantly raised. Although signs and symptoms are significantly improved, proinflammatory cytokines are still increased in CRPS 1 affected extremities during the intermediate stage of the disease. This indicates that the initiation and sustained development of the disease are only partially affected by proinflammatory cytokines. Follow-up in the chronic stage is necessary to draw more definite conclusions about the existence of a supposed relation between clinical signs and symptoms and the level of proinflammatory cytokines

    Inflammatory Profile of Awake Function-Controlled Craniotomy and Craniotomy under General Anesthesia

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    Background. Surgical stress triggers an inflammatory response and releases mediators into human plasma such as interleukins (ILs). Awake craniotomy and craniotomy performed under general anesthesia may be associated with different levels of stress. Our aim was to investigate whether those procedures cause different inflammatory responses. Methods. Twenty patients undergoing craniotomy under general anesthesia and 20 patients undergoing awake function-controlled craniotomy were included in this prospective, observational, two-armed study. Circulating levels of IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 were determined pre-, peri-, and postoperatively in both patient groups. VAS scores for pain, anxiety, and stress were taken at four moments pre- and postoperatively to evaluate physical pain and mental duress. Results. Plasma IL-6 level significantly increased with time similarly in both groups. No significant plasma IL-8 and IL-10 change was observed in both experimental groups. The VAS pain score was significantly lower in the awake group compared to the anesthesia group at 12 hours postoperative. Postoperative anxiety and stress declined similarly in both groups. Conclusion. This study suggests that awake function-controlled craniotomy does not cause a significantly different inflammatory response than craniotomy performed under general anesthesia. It is also likely that function-controlled craniotomy does not cause a greater emotional challenge than tumor resection under general anesthesia

    Simultaneous measurement of glomerular filtration rate, effective renal plasma flow and tubular secretion in different poultry species by single intravenous bolus of iohexol and para-aminohippuric acid

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    Simple Summary The aim of this study was to investigate the simultaneous measurement of two different renal markers (iohexol and p-aminohippuric acid) in the plasma of different poultry species as the gold standard method. The two markers reflect three different renal processes: glomerular filtration, effective renal plasma flow, and tubular secretion. The rate at which the kidneys filter blood is called the glomerular filtration rate. The effective renal plasma flow is the volume of plasma that reaches the kidney per time unit. Tubular secretion can be defined as active transport from the peritubular capillaries to the renal tubules. A moderate correlation was observed between tubular secretion and the glomerular filtration rate. A good correlation was demonstrated between the effective renal plasma flow and the glomerular filtration rate. This might be useful to model both renal processes. This approach could support the further development and validation of clinical renal biomarkers. These markers can be useful in the case of a chronic renal disease or renal failure, for which repeated evaluations of the renal function are required. The aim of the current study was to investigate the simultaneous measurement of plasma p-aminohippuric acid (PAH) clearance as a potential marker to assess effective renal plasma flow (eRPF) and tubular secretion (TS), and the plasma clearance of iohexol (IOH) as a marker of the glomerular filtration rate in poultry species. The PAH was administered intravenously (IV) to broiler chickens, layers, turkeys, Muscovy ducks, and pigeons. Each animal received successively a single bolus dose of 10 mg PAH/kg bodyweight (BW) and 100 mg PAH/kg BW to assess the eRPF and TS, respectively. Simultaneously with both PAH administrations, a single IV bolus of 64.7 mg/kg BW of IOH was administered. A high linear correlation (R-2= 0.79) between eRPF, based on the clearance of the low dose of PAH, and BW was observed for the poultry species. The correlation between TS, based on the clearance of the high dose of PAH, and BW was moderate (R-2= 0.50). Finally, a moderate correlation (R-2= 0.68) was demonstrated between GFR and eRPF and between GFR and TS (R-2= 0.56). This presented pharmacokinetic approach of the simultaneous administration of IOH and PAH enabled a simultaneous evaluation of eRPF/TS and GFR, respectively, in different poultry species

    G-CSF receptor truncations found in SCN/AML relieve SOCS3-controlled inhibition of STAT5 but leave suppression of STAT3 intact

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    Truncated granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptors (G-CSF-Rs) are implicated in severe congenital neutropenia (SCN) and the consecutive development of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Mice expressing G-CSF-R truncation mutants (gcsfr-d715) show defective receptor internalization, an increased signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5)/STAT3 activation ratio, and hyperproliferative responses to G-CSF treatment. We determined whether a lack of negative feedback by suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins contributes to the signaling abnormalities of G-CSF-R-d715. Expression of SOCS3 transcripts in bone marrow cells from G-CSF-treated gcsfr-d715 mice was approximately 60% lower than in wild-type (WT) littermates. SOCS3 efficiently suppressed STAT3 and STAT5 activation by WT G-CSF-R in luciferase reporter assays. In contrast, while SOCS3 still inhibited STAT3 activation by G-CSF-R-d715, STAT5 activation was no longer affected. This was due mainly to loss of the SOCS3 recruitment site Tyr729, with an additional contribution of the internalization defects of G-CSF-R-d715. Because Tyr729 is also a docking site for the Src homology 2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-2 (SHP-2), which binds to and inactivates STAT5, we suggest a model in which reduced SOCS3 expression, combined with the loss of recruitment of both SOCS3 and SHP-2 to the activated receptor complex, determine the increased STAT5/STAT3 activation ratio and the resulting signaling abnormalities projected by truncated G-CSF-R mutants

    Multiplex Bead Array Assay for Detection of 25 Soluble Cytokines in Blister Fluid of Patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type 1

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    Inflammatory processes are known to be involved at least in the early phase of complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS1). Blister fluid obtained from the involved extremities displayed increased amounts of proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNFα compared with the noninvolved extremities. The aim of this paper is to investigate the involvement of mediators by measurement of several other cytokines using new detection techniques that enable multiple cytokine measurement in small samples. The use of a multiplex-25 bead array cytokine assay and Luminex technology enabled simultaneous measurement of representative (1) proinflammatory cytokines such as GM-CSF, IL-1β, IL-1RA, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α; (2) Th1/Th2 distinguishing cytokines IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-2R, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10; (3) nonspecific acting cytokines IFN-α, IL-7, IL-12p40/p70, IL-13, IL-15, and IL-17; and (4) chemokines eotaxin, IP-10, MCP-1, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, MIG, and RANTES. Although minimal detection levels are significantly higher in the bead array system than those in common ELISA assays, in blister fluid, IL-1RA, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, IL-12p40/p70, MCP-1, and MIP-1β were detectable and increased in CRPS1 affected extremities. Levels of IL-6 and TNF-α simultaneously measured by ELISA (Sanquin Compact kit) and by multiplex-25 bead array assay (Biosource) were highly correlated (r = 0.85, P < .001 for IL-6 and r = 0.88, P < .001 for TNF-α). Furthermore, IP-10 and eotaxin were detectable but diminished in CRPS1, whereas detectable amounts of IL-10 were similar in involved and noninvolved extremities. Multiplex bead array assays are useful systems to establish the involvement of cytokines in inflammatory processes by measurements in blister fluids of CRPS1. Ten representative cytokines were detectable. However, detection levels and amounts measured are at least 3 times higher in the multiplex-25 array assay than in the ELISA assays used simultaneously for the measurement of cytokines
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