114 research outputs found

    Estimativa da captura do CO2 devido à carbonatação de concreto e argamassas

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    Anais do V Encontro de Inicia√ß√£o Cient√≠fica e I Encontro Anual de Inicia√ß√£o ao Desenvolvimento Tecnol√≥gico e Inova√ß√£o ‚Äď EICTI 2016 - 05 e 07 de outubro de 2016 ‚Äď Sess√£o EngenhariasO setor cimenteiro √© respons√°vel por 5 a 7% das emiss√Ķes globais de di√≥xido de carbono (CO 2 ) (SINIC, 2010), um dos principais gases do efeito estufa. Principalmente em pa√≠ses em desenvolvimento, o consumo mundial m√©dio de cimento √© crescente, visto que √© o principal constituinte de concretos e argamassas, mat√©ria prima fundamental para obras de infraestrutura e habita√ß√£o (POSSAN; FRIGO, 2012), o que t√™m levado a ind√ļstria cimenteira a buscar solu√ß√Ķes para mitigar/reduzir suas emiss√Ķes. Assim, v√°rias formas de captura e estocagem de CO 2 v√™m sendo estudada recentemente, em especial, os m√©todos f√≠sicos como armazenamento em forma√ß√Ķes geol√≥gicas, oceanos e fundo de mares e m√©todos qu√≠micos, como a carbonata√ß√£o, (POSSAN; FRIGO, 2012). Esta √ļltima ocorre pela rea√ß√£o entre o CO 2 da atmosfera e o hidr√≥xido de c√°lcio (Ca(OH) 2 ) existente nas matrizes cimentantes √† presen√ßa de √°gua, em um processo reverso ao da produ√ß√£o do cimento, capturando CO 2 da atmosfera. Neste contexto, o presente trabalho busca estimar a quantidade de g√°s carb√īnico que pode ser capturado pelas estruturas de concreto e argamassas de revestimento, verificando se esta pode ser considerada uma medida compensat√≥ria na an√°lise do ciclo de vida das constru√ß√Ķes

    High-resolution genetic map and QTL analysis of growth-related traits of Hevea brasiliensis cultivated under suboptimal temperature and humidity conditions

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    Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) cultivation is the main source of natural rubber worldwide and has been extended to areas with suboptimal climates and lengthy drought periods; this transition affects growth and latex production. High-density genetic maps with reliable markers support precise mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL), which can help reveal the complex genome of the species, provide tools to enhance molecular breeding, and shorten the breeding cycle. In this study, QTL mapping of the stem diameter, tree height, and number of whorls was performed for a full-sibling population derived from a GT1 and RRIM701 cross. A total of 225 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and 186 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were used to construct a base map with 18 linkage groups and to anchor 671 SNPs from genotyping by sequencing (GBS) to produce a very dense linkage map with small intervals between loci. The final map was composed of 1,079 markers, spanned 3,779.7 cM with an average marker density of 3.5 cM, and showed collinearity between markers from previous studies. Significant variation in phenotypic characteristics was found over a 59-month evaluation period with a total of 38 QTLs being identified through a composite interval mapping method. Linkage group 4 showed the greatest number of QTLs (7), with phenotypic explained values varying from 7.67 to 14.07%. Additionally, we estimated segregation patterns, dominance, and additive effects for each QTL. A total of 53 significant effects for stem diameter were observed, and these effects were mostly related to additivity in the GT1 clone. Associating accurate genome assemblies and genetic maps represents a promising strategy for identifying the genetic basis of phenotypic traits in rubber trees. Then, further research can benefit from the QTLs identified herein, providing a better understanding of the key determinant genes associated with growth of Hevea brasiliensis under limiting water conditions

    Global, regional, and national burden of neurological disorders, 1990‚Äď2016 : a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016

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    Background: Neurological disorders are increasingly recognised as major causes of death and disability worldwide. The aim of this analysis from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2016 is to provide the most comprehensive and up-to-date estimates of the global, regional, and national burden from neurological disorders. Methods: We estimated prevalence, incidence, deaths, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs; the sum of years of life lost [YLLs] and years lived with disability [YLDs]) by age and sex for 15 neurological disorder categories (tetanus, meningitis, encephalitis, stroke, brain and other CNS cancers, traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, Alzheimer's disease and other dementias, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, motor neuron diseases, idiopathic epilepsy, migraine, tension-type headache, and a residual category for other less common neurological disorders) in 195 countries from 1990 to 2016. DisMod-MR 2.1, a Bayesian meta-regression tool, was the main method of estimation of prevalence and incidence, and the Cause of Death Ensemble model (CODEm) was used for mortality estimation. We quantified the contribution of 84 risks and combinations of risk to the disease estimates for the 15 neurological disorder categories using the GBD comparative risk assessment approach. Findings: Globally, in 2016, neurological disorders were the leading cause of DALYs (276 million [95% UI 247‚Äď308]) and second leading cause of deaths (9¬∑0 million [8¬∑8‚Äď9¬∑4]). The absolute number of deaths and DALYs from all neurological disorders combined increased (deaths by 39% [34‚Äď44] and DALYs by 15% [9‚Äď21]) whereas their age-standardised rates decreased (deaths by 28% [26‚Äď30] and DALYs by 27% [24‚Äď31]) between 1990 and 2016. The only neurological disorders that had a decrease in rates and absolute numbers of deaths and DALYs were tetanus, meningitis, and encephalitis. The four largest contributors of neurological DALYs were stroke (42¬∑2% [38¬∑6‚Äď46¬∑1]), migraine (16¬∑3% [11¬∑7‚Äď20¬∑8]), Alzheimer's and other dementias (10¬∑4% [9¬∑0‚Äď12¬∑1]), and meningitis (7¬∑9% [6¬∑6‚Äď10¬∑4]). For the combined neurological disorders, age-standardised DALY rates were significantly higher in males than in females (male-to-female ratio 1¬∑12 [1¬∑05‚Äď1¬∑20]), but migraine, multiple sclerosis, and tension-type headache were more common and caused more burden in females, with male-to-female ratios of less than 0¬∑7. The 84 risks quantified in GBD explain less than 10% of neurological disorder DALY burdens, except stroke, for which 88¬∑8% (86¬∑5‚Äď90¬∑9) of DALYs are attributable to risk factors, and to a lesser extent Alzheimer's disease and other dementias (22¬∑3% [11¬∑8‚Äď35¬∑1] of DALYs are risk attributable) and idiopathic epilepsy (14¬∑1% [10¬∑8‚Äď17¬∑5] of DALYs are risk attributable). Interpretation: Globally, the burden of neurological disorders, as measured by the absolute number of DALYs, continues to increase. As populations are growing and ageing, and the prevalence of major disabling neurological disorders steeply increases with age, governments will face increasing demand for treatment, rehabilitation, and support services for neurological disorders. The scarcity of established modifiable risks for most of the neurological burden demonstrates that new knowledge is required to develop effective prevention and treatment strategies. Funding: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation

    Estimates, trends, and drivers of the global burden of type 2 diabetes attributable to PM2.5 air pollution, 1990-2019 : an analysis of data from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019

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    Background Experimental and epidemiological studies indicate an association between exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution and increased risk of type 2 diabetes. In view of the high and increasing prevalence of diabetes, we aimed to quantify the burden of type 2 diabetes attributable to PM2.5 originating from ambient and household air pollution.Methods We systematically compiled all relevant cohort and case-control studies assessing the effect of exposure to household and ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution on type 2 diabetes incidence and mortality. We derived an exposure-response curve from the extracted relative risk estimates using the MR-BRT (meta-regression-Bayesian, regularised, trimmed) tool. The estimated curve was linked to ambient and household PM2.5 exposures from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2019, and estimates of the attributable burden (population attributable fractions and rates per 100 000 population of deaths and disability-adjusted life-years) for 204 countries from 1990 to 2019 were calculated. We also assessed the role of changes in exposure, population size, age, and type 2 diabetes incidence in the observed trend in PM2.5-attributable type 2 diabetes burden. All estimates are presented with 95% uncertainty intervals.Findings In 2019, approximately a fifth of the global burden of type 2 diabetes was attributable to PM2.5 exposure, with an estimated 3.78 (95% uncertainty interval 2.68-4.83) deaths per 100 000 population and 167 (117-223) disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) per 100 000 population. Approximately 13.4% (9.49-17.5) of deaths and 13.6% (9.73-17.9) of DALYs due to type 2 diabetes were contributed by ambient PM2.5, and 6.50% (4.22-9.53) of deaths and 5.92% (3.81-8.64) of DALYs by household air pollution. High burdens, in terms of numbers as well as rates, were estimated in Asia, sub-Saharan Africa, and South America. Since 1990, the attributable burden has increased by 50%, driven largely by population growth and ageing. Globally, the impact of reductions in household air pollution was largely offset by increased ambient PM2.5.Interpretation Air pollution is a major risk factor for diabetes. We estimated that about a fifth of the global burden of type 2 diabetes is attributable PM2.5 pollution. Air pollution mitigation therefore might have an essential role in reducing the global disease burden resulting from type 2 diabetes. Copyright (C) 2022 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.Peer reviewe

    Estimates, trends, and drivers of the global burden of type 2 diabetes attributable to PM2.5 air pollution, 1990-2019 : An analysis of data from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019

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    Background Experimental and epidemiological studies indicate an association between exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution and increased risk of type 2 diabetes. In view of the high and increasing prevalence of diabetes, we aimed to quantify the burden of type 2 diabetes attributable to PM2¬∑5 originating from ambient and household air pollution. Methods We systematically compiled all relevant cohort and case-control studies assessing the effect of exposure to household and ambient fine particulate matter (PM2¬∑5) air pollution on type 2 diabetes incidence and mortality. We derived an exposure‚Äďresponse curve from the extracted relative risk estimates using the MR-BRT (meta-regression‚ÄĒBayesian, regularised, trimmed) tool. The estimated curve was linked to ambient and household PM2¬∑5 exposures from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2019, and estimates of the attributable burden (population attributable fractions and rates per 100‚Äą000 population of deaths and disability-adjusted life-years) for 204 countries from 1990 to 2019 were calculated. We also assessed the role of changes in exposure, population size, age, and type 2 diabetes incidence in the observed trend in PM2¬∑5-attributable type 2 diabetes burden. All estimates are presented with 95% uncertainty intervals. Findings In 2019, approximately a fifth of the global burden of type 2 diabetes was attributable to PM2¬∑5 exposure, with an estimated 3¬∑78 (95% uncertainty interval 2¬∑68‚Äď4¬∑83) deaths per 100‚Äą000 population and 167 (117‚Äď223) disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) per 100‚Äą000 population. Approximately 13¬∑4% (9¬∑49‚Äď17¬∑5) of deaths and 13¬∑6% (9¬∑73‚Äď17¬∑9) of DALYs due to type 2 diabetes were contributed by ambient PM2¬∑5, and 6¬∑50% (4¬∑22‚Äď9¬∑53) of deaths and 5¬∑92% (3¬∑81‚Äď8¬∑64) of DALYs by household air pollution. High burdens, in terms of numbers as well as rates, were estimated in Asia, sub-Saharan Africa, and South America. Since 1990, the attributable burden has increased by 50%, driven largely by population growth and ageing. Globally, the impact of reductions in household air pollution was largely offset by increased ambient PM2¬∑5. Interpretation Air pollution is a major risk factor for diabetes. We estimated that about a fifth of the global burden of type 2 diabetes is attributable PM2¬∑5 pollution. Air pollution mitigation therefore might have an essential role in reducing the global disease burden resulting from type 2 diabetes

    Burden of injury along the development spectrum : associations between the Socio-demographic Index and disability-adjusted life year estimates from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017

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    Background The epidemiological transition of non-communicable diseases replacing infectious diseases as the main contributors to disease burden has been well documented in global health literature. Less focus, however, has been given to the relationship between sociodemographic changes and injury. The aim of this study was to examine the association between disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) from injury for 195 countries and territories at different levels along the development spectrum between 1990 and 2017 based on the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2017 estimates. Methods Injury mortality was estimated using the GBD mortality database, corrections for garbage coding and CODEm-the cause of death ensemble modelling tool. Morbidity estimation was based on surveys and inpatient and outpatient data sets for 30 cause-of-injury with 47 nature-of-injury categories each. The Socio-demographic Index (SDI) is a composite indicator that includes lagged income per capita, average educational attainment over age 15 years and total fertility rate. Results For many causes of injury, age-standardised DALY rates declined with increasing SDI, although road injury, interpersonal violence and self-harm did not follow this pattern. Particularly for self-harm opposing patterns were observed in regions with similar SDI levels. For road injuries, this effect was less pronounced. Conclusions The overall global pattern is that of declining injury burden with increasing SDI. However, not all injuries follow this pattern, which suggests multiple underlying mechanisms influencing injury DALYs. There is a need for a detailed understanding of these patterns to help to inform national and global efforts to address injury-related health outcomes across the development spectrum.Peer reviewe

    Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 328 diseases and injuries for 195 countries, 1990‚Äď2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016

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    As mortality rates decline, life expectancy increases, and populations age, non-fatal outcomes of diseases and injuries are becoming a larger component of the global burden of disease. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016) provides a comprehensive assessment of prevalence, incidence, and years lived with disability (YLDs) for 328 causes in 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2016

    Global, regional, and national burden of stroke and its risk factors, 1990‚Äď2019: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019

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    Background Regularly updated data on stroke and its pathological types, including data on their incidence, prevalence, mortality, disability, risk factors, and epidemiological trends, are important for evidence-based stroke care planning and resource allocation. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) aims to provide a standardised and comprehensive measurement of these metrics at global, regional, and national levels. Methods We applied GBD 2019 analytical tools to calculate stroke incidence, prevalence, mortality, disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), and the population attributable fraction (PAF) of DALYs (with corresponding 95% uncertainty intervals [UIs]) associated with 19 risk factors, for 204 countries and territories from 1990 to 2019. These estimates were provided for ischaemic stroke, intracerebral haemorrhage, subarachnoid haemorrhage, and all strokes combined, and stratified by sex, age group, and World Bank country income level. Findings In 2019, there were 12¬∑2 million (95% UI 11¬∑0‚Äď13¬∑6) incident cases of stroke, 101 million (93¬∑2‚Äď111) prevalent cases of stroke, 143 million (133‚Äď153) DALYs due to stroke, and 6¬∑55 million (6¬∑00‚Äď7¬∑02) deaths from stroke. Globally, stroke remained the second-leading cause of death (11¬∑6% [10¬∑8‚Äď12¬∑2] of total deaths) and the third-leading cause of death and disability combined (5¬∑7% [5¬∑1‚Äď6¬∑2] of total DALYs) in 2019. From 1990 to 2019, the absolute number of incident strokes increased by 70¬∑0% (67¬∑0‚Äď73¬∑0), prevalent strokes increased by 85¬∑0% (83¬∑0‚Äď88¬∑0), deaths from stroke increased by 43¬∑0% (31¬∑0‚Äď55¬∑0), and DALYs due to stroke increased by 32¬∑0% (22¬∑0‚Äď42¬∑0). During the same period, age-standardised rates of stroke incidence decreased by 17¬∑0% (15¬∑0‚Äď18¬∑0), mortality decreased by 36¬∑0% (31¬∑0‚Äď42¬∑0), prevalence decreased by 6¬∑0% (5¬∑0‚Äď7¬∑0), and DALYs decreased by 36¬∑0% (31¬∑0‚Äď42¬∑0). However, among people younger than 70 years, prevalence rates increased by 22¬∑0% (21¬∑0‚Äď24¬∑0) and incidence rates increased by 15¬∑0% (12¬∑0‚Äď18¬∑0). In 2019, the age-standardised stroke-related mortality rate was 3¬∑6 (3¬∑5‚Äď3¬∑8) times higher in the World Bank low-income group than in the World Bank high-income group, and the age-standardised stroke-related DALY rate was 3¬∑7 (3¬∑5‚Äď3¬∑9) times higher in the low-income group than the high-income group. Ischaemic stroke constituted 62¬∑4% of all incident strokes in 2019 (7¬∑63 million [6¬∑57‚Äď8¬∑96]), while intracerebral haemorrhage constituted 27¬∑9% (3¬∑41 million [2¬∑97‚Äď3¬∑91]) and subarachnoid haemorrhage constituted 9¬∑7% (1¬∑18 million [1¬∑01‚Äď1¬∑39]). In 2019, the five leading risk factors for stroke were high systolic blood pressure (contributing to 79¬∑6 million [67¬∑7‚Äď90¬∑8] DALYs or 55¬∑5% [48¬∑2‚Äď62¬∑0] of total stroke DALYs), high body-mass index (34¬∑9 million [22¬∑3‚Äď48¬∑6] DALYs or 24¬∑3% [15¬∑7‚Äď33¬∑2]), high fasting plasma glucose (28¬∑9 million [19¬∑8‚Äď41¬∑5] DALYs or 20¬∑2% [13¬∑8‚Äď29¬∑1]), ambient particulate matter pollution (28¬∑7 million [23¬∑4‚Äď33¬∑4] DALYs or 20¬∑1% [16¬∑6‚Äď23¬∑0]), and smoking (25¬∑3 million [22¬∑6‚Äď28¬∑2] DALYs or 17¬∑6% [16¬∑4‚Äď19¬∑0]). Interpretation The annual number of strokes and deaths due to stroke increased substantially from 1990 to 2019, despite substantial reductions in age-standardised rates, particularly among people older than 70 years. The highest age-standardised stroke-related mortality and DALY rates were in the World Bank low-income group. The fastest-growing risk factor for stroke between 1990 and 2019 was high body-mass index. Without urgent implementation of effective primary prevention strategies, the stroke burden will probably continue to grow across the world, particularly in low-income countries.publishedVersio

    Global, regional, and national age-sex-specific mortality for 282 causes of death in 195 countries and territories, 1980-2017 : a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017

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    Background Global development goals increasingly rely on country-specific estimates for benchmarking a nation's progress. To meet this need, the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2016 estimated global, regional, national, and, for selected locations, subnational cause-specific mortality beginning in the year 1980. Here we report an update to that study, making use of newly available data and improved methods. GBD 2017 provides a comprehensive assessment of cause-specific mortality for 282 causes in 195 countries and territories from 1980 to 2017. Methods The causes of death database is composed of vital registration (VR), verbal autopsy (VA), registry, survey, police, and surveillance data. GBD 2017 added ten VA studies, 127 country-years of VR data, 502 cancer-registry country-years, and an additional surveillance country-year. Expansions of the GBD cause of death hierarchy resulted in 18 additional causes estimated for GBD 2017. Newly available data led to subnational estimates for five additional countries Ethiopia, Iran, New Zealand, Norway, and Russia. Deaths assigned International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for non-specific, implausible, or intermediate causes of death were reassigned to underlying causes by redistribution algorithms that were incorporated into uncertainty estimation. We used statistical modelling tools developed for GBD, including the Cause of Death Ensemble model (CODErn), to generate cause fractions and cause specific death rates for each location, year, age, and sex. Instead of using UN estimates as in previous versions, GBD 2017 independently estimated population size and fertility rate for all locations. Years of life lost (YLLs) were then calculated as the sum of each death multiplied by the standard life expectancy at each age. All rates reported here are age-standardised. Findings At the broadest grouping of causes of death (Level 1), non-communicable diseases (NC Ds) comprised the greatest fraction of deaths, contributing to 73.4% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 72.5-74.1) of total deaths in 2017, while communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional (CMNN) causes accounted for 186% (17.9-19.6), and injuries 8.0% (7.7-8.2). Total numbers of deaths from NCD causes increased from 2007 to 2017 by 22.7% (21.5-23.9), representing an additional 7.61 million (7. 20-8.01) deaths estimated in 2017 versus 2007. The death rate from NCDs decreased globally by 7.9% (7.08.8). The number of deaths for CMNN causes decreased by 222% (20.0-24.0) and the death rate by 31.8% (30.1-33.3). Total deaths from injuries increased by 2.3% (0-5-4-0) between 2007 and 2017, and the death rate from injuries decreased by 13.7% (12.2-15.1) to 57.9 deaths (55.9-59.2) per 100 000 in 2017. Deaths from substance use disorders also increased, rising from 284 000 deaths (268 000-289 000) globally in 2007 to 352 000 (334 000-363 000) in 2017. Between 2007 and 2017, total deaths from conflict and terrorism increased by 118.0% (88.8-148.6). A greater reduction in total deaths and death rates was observed for some CMNN causes among children younger than 5 years than for older adults, such as a 36.4% (32.2-40.6) reduction in deaths from lower respiratory infections for children younger than 5 years compared with a 33.6% (31.2-36.1) increase in adults older than 70 years. Globally, the number of deaths was greater for men than for women at most ages in 2017, except at ages older than 85 years. Trends in global YLLs reflect an epidemiological transition, with decreases in total YLLs from enteric infections, respirator}, infections and tuberculosis, and maternal and neonatal disorders between 1990 and 2017; these were generally greater in magnitude at the lowest levels of the Socio-demographic Index (SDI). At the same time, there were large increases in YLLs from neoplasms and cardiovascular diseases. YLL rates decreased across the five leading Level 2 causes in all SDI quintiles. The leading causes of YLLs in 1990 neonatal disorders, lower respiratory infections, and diarrhoeal diseases were ranked second, fourth, and fifth, in 2017. Meanwhile, estimated YLLs increased for ischaemic heart disease (ranked first in 2017) and stroke (ranked third), even though YLL rates decreased. Population growth contributed to increased total deaths across the 20 leading Level 2 causes of mortality between 2007 and 2017. Decreases in the cause-specific mortality rate reduced the effect of population growth for all but three causes: substance use disorders, neurological disorders, and skin and subcutaneous diseases. Interpretation Improvements in global health have been unevenly distributed among populations. Deaths due to injuries, substance use disorders, armed conflict and terrorism, neoplasms, and cardiovascular disease are expanding threats to global health. For causes of death such as lower respiratory and enteric infections, more rapid progress occurred for children than for the oldest adults, and there is continuing disparity in mortality rates by sex across age groups. Reductions in the death rate of some common diseases are themselves slowing or have ceased, primarily for NCDs, and the death rate for selected causes has increased in the past decade. Copyright (C) 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.Peer reviewe
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