56 research outputs found

    The willingness of US pediatric dentists to use Atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) with their patients: a conjoint analysis

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    Objectives: The atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) was developed as an affordable, patient-friendly dental caries management procedure that does not need extensive operator training or special skills. The aim of this study was to determine factors that influence the decision to use ART using an innovative marketing research technique known as conjoint analysis. Methods: A conjoint survey was completed by 723 members of the American Academy of PediatricDentistry.Three factors (age of the child, level of cooperation, type of insurance) were varied across three levels to create nine patient scenarios. The weights that practitioners placed on these factors in decisions to use ART in treating carious lesions were determined by conjoint analysis. Factors such as lesion location, depth, and extension were fixed in the nine clinical scenarios. Results: Seven-hundred twenty-three pediatric dentists completed the survey (32 percent). Age of the child was the most important factor in pediatric dentists’ decisions to use ART (46 percent) compared with level of cooperation (41 percent) and type of insurance coverage (11 percent). For the age factor, the age of 2 years had the greatest utility (0.55) compared with age 4 (−0.09) and age 6 (−0.46). For types of insurance coverage, having no insurance (0.124) had the greatest utility compared with having public insurance (−0.119). Conclusions: Although insurance coverage was the least important among the factors, being without insurance, being very young, and being uncooperative was the scenario where pediatric dentists most favored ART when making trade offs between different factors using the conjoint design.This project was funded by NIH/NIDC R T32 grant DEO 14678-06

    A multi-decade record of high quality fCO2 data in version 3 of the Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT)

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    The Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT) is a synthesis of quality-controlled fCO2 (fugacity of carbon dioxide) values for the global surface oceans and coastal seas with regular updates. Version 3 of SOCAT has 14.7 million fCO2 values from 3646 data sets covering the years 1957 to 2014. This latest version has an additional 4.6 million fCO2 values relative to version 2 and extends the record from 2011 to 2014. Version 3 also significantly increases the data availability for 2005 to 2013. SOCAT has an average of approximately 1.2 million surface water fCO2 values per year for the years 2006 to 2012. Quality and documentation of the data has improved. A new feature is the data set quality control (QC) flag of E for data from alternative sensors and platforms. The accuracy of surface water fCO2 has been defined for all data set QC flags. Automated range checking has been carried out for all data sets during their upload into SOCAT. The upgrade of the interactive Data Set Viewer (previously known as the Cruise Data Viewer) allows better interrogation of the SOCAT data collection and rapid creation of high-quality figures for scientific presentations. Automated data upload has been launched for version 4 and will enable more frequent SOCAT releases in the future. High-profile scientific applications of SOCAT include quantification of the ocean sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide and its long-term variation, detection of ocean acidification, as well as evaluation of coupled-climate and ocean-only biogeochemical models. Users of SOCAT data products are urged to acknowledge the contribution of data providers, as stated in the SOCAT Fair Data Use Statement. This ESSD (Earth System Science Data) “living data” publication documents the methods and data sets used for the assembly of this new version of the SOCAT data collection and compares these with those used for earlier versions of the data collection (Pfeil et al., 2013; Sabine et al., 2013; Bakker et al., 2014). Individual data set files, included in the synthesis product, can be downloaded here: doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.849770. The gridded products are available here: doi:10.3334/CDIAC/OTG.SOCAT_V3_GRID

    An examination of the characteristics of unidimensional IRT parameter estimates derived from two-dimensional data

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    The purpose of this investigation was to study the nature of the item and ability estimates obtained when the modified three-parameter logistic model is used with two-dimensional data. To examine the effects of two-dimensional data on unidimensional parameter estimates, the relative potency of the two dimensions was systematically varied by changing the correlations between the two ability dimensions. Data sets based on correlations of .0, .3, .6, .9, and .95 were generated for each of four combinations of sample size and test length. Also, for each of these four combinations, five unidimensional data sets were simulated for comparison purposes. Relative to the nature of the unidimensional estimates, it was found that the [circumflex a] value seemed best considered as the average of the true a values. The [circumflex b] value seemed best thought of as an overestimate of the true b[subscript 1] values. The [circumflex theta] value seemed best considered as the average of the true ability parameters. Although there was a consistent trend for these relationships to strengthen as the ability dimensions became more highly correlated, there was always a substantial disparity between the magnitudes of these values and of those derived from the unidimensional data. Sample size and test length had very little effect on these relationships

    Anticipatory pacing strategies during supramaximal exercise lasting longer than 30 s

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    Purpose: This study assessed whether pacing strategies are adopted during supramaximal exercise bouts lasting longer than 30 s. Methods: Eight healthy males performed six Wingate anaerobic tests (WAnT). Subjects were informed that they were performing four 30-s WAnT, a 33-s, and a 36-s WAnT. However, they actually completed two trials of 30, 33, and 36 s each. Temporal feedback in the deception trials was manipulated so that subjects were unaware of the time discrepancy. Power output was determined from the angular displacement of the flywheel. The peak power (PPI), mean power (MPI), and fatigue (FI) indices were calculated for each trial. Results: Power output was similar for all trials up to 30 s. However, at 36 s, the power output was significantly lower in the 36-s deception trial compared with the 36-s informed trial (392 ± 32 W vs 470 ± 88 W) (P < 0.001). The MPI was significantly lower in the 36-s trials (714 ± 76 W and 713 ± 78 W) compared with the 30-s trials (745 ± 65 W and 764 ± 82 W) although they were not different at 30 s (764 ± 83 W and 755 ± 79 W). The significant reduction in FI was greatest in the 36-s deception trial. Conclusions: The significant reduction in power output in the last 6 s of the 36-s deception trial, but not in the 36-s informed trial, indicates the presence of a preprogrammed 30-s end point based on the anticipated exercise duration from previous experience. The similarity in pacing strategy suggests that the pacing strategy is centrally regulated