77 research outputs found

    COMPETITION AMONG FOREIGN AND CHINESE AGRO-FOOD ENTERPRISES IN THE PROCESS OF GLOBALIZATION

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    Based on various case studies, this article examines the interaction of foreign investors and local operators in globalization in the agro-food market in China. The study found that to break the limitation of the high-end market and to position mainly in the middle market were critical for international brands to succeed. Asian companies approached the China market as an insider because of cultural proximity. The latter, plus focused management and effective technology, made their operations profitable easily, but also exposed them to the risk of overexpansion. Quality products at affordable prices were the catch-up approach adopted by local players. At the early stage of globalization, winning tactics for local enterprises include imitating and participating in foreign investments, and exploring the markets where foreign investors have no advantages. In the China market, foreign and domestic enterprises were competing, complementing, and collaborating with each other to allow each to achieve its goals. The study analyzes the sophisticated relationships between domestic and foreign players, and provides inputs to strategic discussions of foreign investors and Chinese local enterprises about how to improve their competitive positions.Agribusiness, International Relations/Trade,

    Long Agricultural Futures Prices: ARCH, Long Memory, or Chaos Processes?

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    Price series that are 21.5 years long for six agricultural futures markets, corn, soybeans, wheat, hogs, coffee and sugar, possess characteristics consistent with nonlinear dynamics. Three nonlinear models, ARCH, long memory and chaos, are able to produce these symptoms. Using daily, weekly and monthly data for the six markets, each of these models is tested against the martingale difference null, one-by-one. Standard ARCH tests suggest that all series might contain ARCH effects, but further diagnostics show that the series are not ARCH processes, failing to reject the null. A long-memory technique, the AFIMA model, fails to find long-memory structures in the data, except for sugar. This allows chaos analysis to be applied directly to the raw data. Carefully specifying phase space, and utilizing correlation dimension and Lyapunov exponent together, the remaining five price series are found to be chaotic processes.futures markets, ARCH, chaos

    The role of industrial clusters in local economic and social development: the case of tourism cluster in Guilin, China

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    Since the 1990s, Guilin's tourism had made great progress during this period. However, the rapid development of tourism had put a significant impact on local industrial development, social and ecological environment. This had both positive effects such as generating huge economic benefits and promoting industrial upgrading and optimization, and negative impacts such as destroying the local ecological environment. How to further promote the sustainable development of tourism in Guilin, and reduce these negative effects while improving the competitiveness of Guilin's tourism? This study focused on the following issues: How did the Guilin's tourism industry cluster evolve and what were the development stages? What were the positive social and economic benefits brought by the tourism industry cluster, and what were the negative impacts brought to the region? How to promote the development of Guilin's tourism industry cluster to solve the current contradiction between human and land relations? Under the framework of life cycle theory, diamond model, this study divided the evolution stage of Guilin's tourism industry cluster, and analyzed the influencing factors and stakeholders of each stage development. The purpose was to find a sustainable development path to promote the healthy and rapid development of local tourism economic, social and ecological benefits. The study found that the Guilin's tourism industry cluster experienced a process from government initiation to multiple stakeholder drive. The interest orientation shifted from political interests to economic interests, and then from economic interests to the combination of economic interests, social interests and environmental interests. The experience of Guilin's tourism development could be summarized as follows: The government coordinated various resources, attached importance to human-land relations, strengthened the construction of various tourism systems, and launched innovative tourism products.Desde a década de 1990, a indústria do turismo de Guilin se desenvolveu rapidamente. No entanto, com o rápido desenvolvimento do turismo, o aumento de turistas e atividades turísticas exerceu um impacto tão significativo no desenvolvimento industrial local, no ambiente social e no ambiente ecológico, que não apenas gerará enormes benefícios econômicos e promoverá a modernização e otimização industrial, por um lado , mas também danificam o ambiente ecológico local e destroem a simplicidade local e os costumes populares. É urgente refletir sobre como promover ainda mais o desenvolvimento sustentável do turismo em Guilin através da construção do cluster da indústria do turismo de Guilin e reduzir ou até eliminar esses efeitos negativos, melhorando a competitividade do turismo de Guilin. Este estudo se concentra nas seguintes perguntas: Como o cluster da indústria do turismo de Guilin evolui e em quais estágios de desenvolvimento ele passou? Quais são os benefícios sociais e econômicos trazidos pelo cluster da indústria do turismo em Guilin e quais são os impactos negativos trazidos para a região? Como promover o desenvolvimento do cluster da indústria do turismo para resolver a atual contradição entre humanos e terra, com um aumento contínuo da capacidade de carga da indústria do turismo de Guilin? Sob a estrutura da teoria do ciclo de vida, modelo de diamante e modelo 3P, este estudo divide o estágio de evolução do cluster da indústria de turismo de Guilin, analisa os fatores que influenciam o desenvolvimento de cada estágio e conduz análises aprofundadas das partes interessadas em cada estágio de desenvolvimento. O estudo constatou que o cluster do setor de turismo de Guilin passou por um processo desde a iniciação do governo até a movimentação de várias partes interessadas. A orientação do interesse mudou de interesses políticos para interesses econômicos e, em seguida, de interesses econômicos para a combinação de interesses econômicos, sociais e ambientais. A experiência do desenvolvimento do turismo de Guilin pode ser resumida da seguinte forma: o governo coordena vários recursos, atribui importância às relações terra-homem, fortalece a construção de vários sistemas turísticos e lança produtos turísticos inovadores

    Population pharmacokinetics of Amisulpride in Chinese patients with schizophrenia with external validation: the impact of renal function

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    Introduction: Amisulpride is primarily eliminated via the kidneys. Given the clear influence of renal clearance on plasma concentration, we aimed to explicitly examine the impact of renal function on amisulpride pharmacokinetics (PK) via population PK modelling and Monte Carlo simulations.Method: Plasma concentrations from 921 patients (776 in development and 145 in validation) were utilized.Results: Amisulpride PK could be described by a one-compartment model with linear elimination where estimated glomerular filtration rate, eGFR, had a significant influence on clearance. All PK parameters (estimate, RSE%) were precisely estimated: apparent volume of distribution (645 L, 18%), apparent clearance (60.5 L/h, 2%), absorption rate constant (0.106 h−1, 12%) and coefficient of renal function on clearance (0.817, 10%). No other significant covariate was found. The predictive performance of the model was externally validated. Covariate analysis showed an inverse relationship between eGFR and exposure, where subjects with eGFR= 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 had more than 2-fold increase in AUC, trough and peak concentration. Simulation results further illustrated that, given a dose of 800 mg, plasma concentrations of all patients with renal impairment would exceed 640 ng/mL.Discussion: Our work demonstrated the importance of renal function in amisulpride dose adjustment and provided a quantitative framework to guide individualized dosing for Chinese patients with schizophrenia

    Agricultural Futures Prices and Long Memory Processes

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    Price series that are 21.5 years long for six agricultural futures markets, corn, soybeans, wheat, hogs, coffee, and sugar, exhibit time-varying volatility, carry long-range dependence, and portray excessive skewness and kurtosis, though they are covariance stationary. This suggests that the series contain nonlinear dynamics. ARCH and long memory are the two stochastic nonlinear models that are able to produce these symptoms. Though standard ARCH tests suggest that all series might contain ARCH effects, further diagnostics show that the series cannot be ARCH processes. The martingale difference null cannot be rejected by the ARCH model. Three long memory techniques, the classical R/S analysis, the modified R/S analysis, and the AFIMA model, are applied to test the martingale difference null against the long memory alternative. The nonparametric method, the classical R/S analysis, suggests there might be long memory structures in the series. However, two other more robust tests, the modified R/S analysis and the AFIMA model, confirm the case of sugar, but reject this proposition for the other five markets.published or submitted for publicationnot peer reviewe

    Long Agricultural Futures Prices: ARCH, Long Memory, or Chaos Processes?

    Get PDF
    Price series that are 21.5 years long for six agricultural futures markets, corn, soybeans, wheat, hogs, coffee and sugar, possess characteristics consistent with nonlinear dynamics. Three nonlinear models, ARCH, long memory and chaos, are able to produce these symptoms. Using daily, weekly and monthly data for the six markets, each of these models is tested against the martingale difference null, one-by-one. Standard ARCH tests suggest that all series might contain ARCH effects, but further diagnostics show that the series are not ARCH processes, failing to reject the null. A long-memory technique, the AFIMA model, fails to find long-memory structures in the data, except for sugar. This allows chaos analysis to be applied directly to the raw data. Carefully specifying phase space, and utilizing correlation dimension and Lyapunov exponent together, the remaining five price series are found to be chaotic processes.published or submitted for publicationnot peer reviewe

    Long Agricultural Futures Price Series: ARCH, Long Memory, or Chaos Processes

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    151 p.Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1997.This study has advanced the research methods and procedures of nonlinear dynamics modeling. Some basic properties of ARCH processes have been highlighted since they were not given enough attention in the past and lead to the misuse of the ARCH model. The study has introduced the long memory model, especially the AFIMA model, to agricultural market study for the first time. The study suggests that various linear and nonlinear filters should be used carefully in chaos study since it has been found that they can distort potential chaotic structures in the data. The typical chaos analysis must start with constructing the phase space, and the parameters of phase should be specified carefully.U of I OnlyRestricted to the U of I community idenfinitely during batch ingest of legacy ETD

    COMPETITION AMONG FOREIGN AND CHINESE AGRO-FOOD ENTERPRISES IN THE PROCESS OF GLOBALIZATION

    No full text
    Based on various case studies, this article examines the interaction of foreign investors and local operators in globalization in the agro-food market in China. The study found that to break the limitation of the high-end market and to position mainly in the middle market were critical for international brands to succeed. Asian companies approached the China market as an insider because of cultural proximity. The latter, plus focused management and effective technology, made their operations profitable easily, but also exposed them to the risk of overexpansion. Quality products at affordable prices were the catch-up approach adopted by local players. At the early stage of globalization, winning tactics for local enterprises include imitating and participating in foreign investments, and exploring the markets where foreign investors have no advantages. In the China market, foreign and domestic enterprises were competing, complementing, and collaborating with each other to allow each to achieve its goals. The study analyzes the sophisticated relationships between domestic and foreign players, and provides inputs to strategic discussions of foreign investors and Chinese local enterprises about how to improve their competitive positions
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