121 research outputs found

    The qq-log-convexity of Domb's polynomials

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    In this paper, we prove the qq-log-convexity of Domb's polynomials, which was conjectured by Sun in the study of Ramanujan-Sato type series for powers of π\pi. As a result, we obtain the log-convexity of Domb's numbers. Our proof is based on the qq-log-convexity of Narayana polynomials of type BB and a criterion for determining qq-log-convexity of self-reciprocal polynomials.Comment: arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with arXiv:1308.273

    On the qq-log-convexity conjecture of Sun

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    In his study of Ramanujan-Sato type series for 1/π1/\pi, Sun introduced a sequence of polynomials Sn(q)S_n(q) as given by Sn(q)=∑k=0n(nk)(2kk)(2(n−k)n−k)qk,S_n(q)=\sum\limits_{k=0}^n{n\choose k}{2k\choose k}{2(n-k)\choose n-k}q^k, and he conjectured that the polynomials Sn(q)S_n(q) are qq-log-convex. By imitating a result of Liu and Wang on generating new qq-log-convex sequences of polynomials from old ones, we obtain a sufficient condition for determining the qq-log-convexity of self-reciprocal polynomials. Based on this criterion, we then give an affirmative answer to Sun's conjecture

    Phonon dispersion in 1-layer cuprate HgBa2CuO4+d

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    We investigate the low energy acoustical and optical modes in HgBa2CuO4+δ\mathrm{HgBa_2CuO_{4+\delta}} using inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS). The experimental phonon dispersion and the dynamical structure factor are compared with an atomic shell model, and the set of the atomic potentials obtained are discussed. Our results are also compared with those obtained by Raman spectroscopy and with density-of-state data measured by inelastic neutron scattering

    Mitochondrial 2,4-dienoyl-CoA Reductase Deficiency in Mice Results in Severe Hypoglycemia with Stress Intolerance and Unimpaired Ketogenesis

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    The mitochondrial β-oxidation system is one of the central metabolic pathways of energy metabolism in mammals. Enzyme defects in this pathway cause fatty acid oxidation disorders. To elucidate the role of 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase (DECR) as an auxiliary enzyme in the mitochondrial β-oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids, we created a DECR–deficient mouse line. In Decr−/− mice, the mitochondrial β-oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids with double bonds is expected to halt at the level of trans-2, cis/trans-4-dienoyl-CoA intermediates. In line with this expectation, fasted Decr−/− mice displayed increased serum acylcarnitines, especially decadienoylcarnitine, a product of the incomplete oxidation of linoleic acid (C18:2), urinary excretion of unsaturated dicarboxylic acids, and hepatic steatosis, wherein unsaturated fatty acids accumulate in liver triacylglycerols. Metabolically challenged Decr−/− mice turned on ketogenesis, but unexpectedly developed hypoglycemia. Induced expression of peroxisomal β-oxidation and microsomal ω-oxidation enzymes reflect the increased lipid load, whereas reduced mRNA levels of PGC-1α and CREB, as well as enzymes in the gluconeogenetic pathway, can contribute to stress-induced hypoglycemia. Furthermore, the thermogenic response was perturbed, as demonstrated by intolerance to acute cold exposure. This study highlights the necessity of DECR and the breakdown of unsaturated fatty acids in the transition of intermediary metabolism from the fed to the fasted state

    Wolbachia Infections in Anopheles gambiae Cells: Transcriptomic Characterization of a Novel Host-Symbiont Interaction

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    The endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia is being investigated as a potential control agent in several important vector insect species. Recent studies have shown that Wolbachia can protect the insect host against a wide variety of pathogens, resulting in reduced transmission of parasites and viruses. It has been proposed that compromised vector competence of Wolbachia-infected insects is due to up-regulation of the host innate immune system or metabolic competition. Anopheles mosquitoes, which transmit human malaria parasites, have never been found to harbor Wolbachia in nature. While transient somatic infections can be established in Anopheles, no stable artificially-transinfected Anopheles line has been developed despite numerous attempts. However, cultured Anopheles cells can be stably infected with multiple Wolbachia strains such as wAlbB from Aedes albopictus, wRi from Drosophila simulans and wMelPop from Drosophila melanogaster. Infected cell lines provide an amenable system to investigate Wolbachia-Anopheles interactions in the absence of an infected mosquito strain. We used Affymetrix GeneChip microarrays to investigate the effect of wAlbB and wRi infection on the transcriptome of cultured Anopheles Sua5B cells, and for a subset of genes used quantitative PCR to validate results in somatically-infected Anopheles mosquitoes. Wolbachia infection had a dramatic strain-specific effect on gene expression in this cell line, with almost 700 genes in total regulated representing a diverse array of functional classes. Very strikingly, infection resulted in a significant down-regulation of many immune, stress and detoxification-related transcripts. This is in stark contrast to the induction of immune genes observed in other insect hosts. We also identified genes that may be potentially involved in Wolbachia-induced reproductive and pathogenic phenotypes. Somatically-infected mosquitoes had similar responses to cultured cells. The data show that Wolbachia has a profound and unique effect on Anopheles gene expression in cultured cells, and has important implications for mechanistic understanding of Wolbachia-induced phenotypes and potential novel strategies to control malaria

    2017 HRS/EHRA/ECAS/APHRS/SOLAECE expert consensus statement on catheter and surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation: executive summary.

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    Fine-mapping of prostate cancer susceptibility loci in a large meta-analysis identifies candidate causal variants

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    Prostate cancer is a polygenic disease with a large heritable component. A number of common, low-penetrance prostate cancer risk loci have been identified through GWAS. Here we apply the Bayesian multivariate variable selection algorithm JAM to fine-map 84 prostate cancer susceptibility loci, using summary data from a large European ancestry meta-analysis. We observe evidence for multiple independent signals at 12 regions and 99 risk signals overall. Only 15 original GWAS tag SNPs remain among the catalogue of candidate variants identified; the remainder are replaced by more likely candidates. Biological annotation of our credible set of variants indicates significant enrichment within promoter and enhancer elements, and transcription factor-binding sites, including AR, ERG and FOXA1. In 40 regions at least one variant is colocalised with an eQTL in prostate cancer tissue. The refined set of candidate variants substantially increase the proportion of familial relative risk explained by these known susceptibility regions, which highlights the importance of fine-mapping studies and has implications for clinical risk profiling. © 2018 The Author(s).Prostate cancer is a polygenic disease with a large heritable component. A number of common, low-penetrance prostate cancer risk loci have been identified through GWAS. Here we apply the Bayesian multivariate variable selection algorithm JAM to fine-map 84 prostate cancer susceptibility loci, using summary data from a large European ancestry meta-analysis. We observe evidence for multiple independent signals at 12 regions and 99 risk signals overall. Only 15 original GWAS tag SNPs remain among the catalogue of candidate variants identified; the remainder are replaced by more likely candidates. Biological annotation of our credible set of variants indicates significant enrichment within promoter and enhancer elements, and transcription factor-binding sites, including AR, ERG and FOXA1. In 40 regions at least one variant is colocalised with an eQTL in prostate cancer tissue. The refined set of candidate variants substantially increase the proportion of familial relative risk explained by these known susceptibility regions, which highlights the importance of fine-mapping studies and has implications for clinical risk profiling. © 2018 The Author(s).Peer reviewe

    Assessing associations between the AURKAHMMR-TPX2-TUBG1 functional module and breast cancer risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers

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    While interplay between BRCA1 and AURKA-RHAMM-TPX2-TUBG1 regulates mammary epithelial polarization, common genetic variation in HMMR (gene product RHAMM) may be associated with risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers. Following on these observations, we further assessed the link between the AURKA-HMMR-TPX2-TUBG1 functional module and risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. Forty-one single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in 15,252 BRCA1 and 8,211 BRCA2 mutation carriers and subsequently analyzed using a retrospective likelihood appr
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