40 research outputs found

    Health Benefits of Urban Agriculture

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    Health professionals increasingly recognize the value of farm-and garden-scale urban agriculture. Growing food and non-food crops in and near cities contributes to healthy communities by engaging residents in work and recreation that improves individual and public well-being. This article outlines the benefits of urban agriculture with regard to nutrition, food security, exercise, mental health, and social and physical urban environments. Potential risks are reviewed. Practical recommendations for health professionals to increase the positive benefits of urban agriculture are provided

    Gender, Nutrition, and the Human Right to Adequate Food: Toward an Inclusive Framework

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    The food crisis of 2008 was not an isolated incident or unique event from which the world economy and food security has re-stabilized. Rather, as Valente and Suárez Franco (2010, 455) state, [the 2008 food crisis] is not new for more than 840 million people who have constantly been subjected to hunger over the last thirty years, millions of whom died of malnutrition and associated diseases, or had their quality of life severely affected by the consequences of malnutrition. Although estimates of food insecurity differ, the geography and socio-demographic profile of the food insecure remains unaltered (FAO, WFP, IFAD 2012; HRC 2011, para. 6). Among the most food insecure population groups are food producing peasants, including small-scale and family farm holders, landless farmers surviving as tenants or agricultural workers, hunters and gatherers, pastoralists and fisherfolk, more particularly those living in higher risk environments and remote areas, as well as non-farm rural households, and the urban poor (HRC 2014, para.44; Scherr 2003, 15). Within these, women and girls face violations of their right to adequate food and nutrition at a 60:40 ratio relative to men and boys (UN ECOSOC 2007) and comprise 70 percent of the poor (HRC 2012; World Bank, FAO, IFAD 2009). Obviously, not all women everywhere are hungry and gender does not connote the last or worst basis for discrimination but is further complicated by differences of age, social status, sexuality, and dis/ability, among others. Nevertheless, available data reveal that the structural power inequalities reflected in food and nutrition insecurity according to different status of livelihood, rural-urban location, nation, ethnicity, race, and class are consistently compounded by and manifested within gender discrimination.https://scholarworks.uvm.edu/fss2015/1012/thumbnail.jp

    Violence as an Under-Recognized Barrier to Women’s Realization of Their Right to Adequate Food and Nutrition: Case Studies From Georgia and South Africa

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    This article addresses under-acknowledged barriers of structural violence and discrimination that interfere with women’s capacity to realize their human rights generally, and their right to adequate food and nutrition in particular. Case studies from Georgia and South Africa illustrate the need for a human rights–based approach to food and nutrition security that prioritizes non-discrimination, public participation, and self-determination. These principles are frustrated by different types of structural violence that, if not seriously addressed, pose multiple barriers to women’s economic, public, and social engagement. </jats:p

    Supplementary feeding with locally-produced Ready-to- Use Food (RUF) for mildly wasted children on Nias Island, Indonesia: comparison of daily and weekly program outcomes

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    Ready-to-Use Foods (RUFs) in the form of fortified cereal/nut/legume-based biscuits (±500 kcal and 8-10% protein per 100 g) were tested among mildly wasted children from October 2007 to June 2008, and were labelled as RUF-Nias biscuits. This study reports on a comparison of supplementary feeding program outcomes of mildly wasted children with weight-for-height z-score (WHZ) ≥-2 to &lt;-1.5 SD aged ≥6 to &lt;60 months old given locally produced RUF-Nias biscuits within daily (in semi-urban areas) and weekly (in rural remote regions) distribution and supervision program settings. In the Church World Service project area, all eligible children were recruited continuously from monthly community-based screening programs and admitted into existing nutrition centers managed by the community on Nias Island, Indonesia. Individual discharge criterion of the programs was WHZ ≥-1.5 SD. Of the index children admitted in daily programs (n=51), 80.4% reached target WHZ, which was higher than in weekly programs (72.9%; n=48) by a similar length of stay of about 6 weeks. Weight gain of the children in daily programs was higher (3.1±3.6 g/kg body weight/day) than in weekly programs (2.0±2.1 g/kg body weight/day), and they achieved significantly higher WHZ at discharge. However, the majority of caretakers preferred weekly programs due to lower time constraints. Locally produced RUF in the form of biscuits for treatment of mild wasting among children demonstrated promising results both in daily and weekly communitybased intervention programs

    Is the Kaiser Permanente model superior in terms of clinical integration?: a comparative study of Kaiser Permanente, Northern California and the Danish healthcare system

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Integration of medical care across clinicians and settings could enhance the quality of care for patients. To date, there is limited data on the levels of integration in practice. Our objective was to compare primary care clinicians' perceptions of clinical integration and three sub-aspects in two healthcare systems: Kaiser Permanente, Northern California (KPNC) and the Danish healthcare system (DHS). Further, we examined the associations between specific organizational factors and clinical integration within each system.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>Comparable questionnaires were sent to a random sample of primary care clinicians in KPNC (n = 1103) and general practitioners in DHS (n = 700). Data were analysed using multiple logistic regression models.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>More clinicians in KPNC perceived to be part of a clinical integrated environment than did general practitioners in the DHS (OR = 3.06, 95% CI: 2.28, 4.12). Further, more KPNC clinicians reported timeliness of information transfer (OR = 2.25, 95% CI: 1.62, 3.13), agreement on roles and responsibilities (OR = 1.79, 95% CI: 1.30, 2.47) and established coordination mechanisms in place to ensure effective handoffs (OR = 6.80, 95% CI: 4.60, 10.06). None of the considered organizational factors in the sub-country analysis explained a substantial proportion of the variation in clinical integration.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>More primary care clinicians in KPNC reported clinical integration than did general practitioners in the DHS. Focused measures of clinical integration are needed to develop the field of clinical integration and to create the scientific foundation to guide managers searching for evidence based approaches.</p

    Central Role of Pyrophosphate in Acellular Cementum Formation

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    Background: Inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) is a physiologic inhibitor of hydroxyapatite mineral precipitation involved in regulating mineralized tissue development and pathologic calcification. Local levels of PPi are controlled by antagonistic functions of factors that decrease PPi and promote mineralization (tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase, Alpl/TNAP), and those that increase local PPi and restrict mineralization (progressive ankylosis protein, ANK; ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase phosphodiesterase-1, NPP1). The cementum enveloping the tooth root is essential for tooth function by providing attachment to the surrounding bone via the nonmineralized periodontal ligament. At present, the developmental regulation of cementum remains poorly understood, hampering efforts for regeneration. To elucidate the role of PPi in cementum formation, we analyzed root development in knock-out ((-/-)) mice featuring PPi dysregulation. Results: Excess PPi in the Alpl(-/-) mouse inhibited cementum formation, causing root detachment consistent with premature tooth loss in the human condition hypophosphatasia, though cementoblast phenotype was unperturbed. Deficient PPi in both Ank and Enpp1(-/-) mice significantly increased cementum apposition and overall thickness more than 12-fold vs. controls, while dentin and cellular cementum were unaltered. Though PPi regulators are widely expressed, cementoblasts selectively expressed greater ANK and NPP1 along the root surface, and dramatically increased ANK or NPP1 in models of reduced PPi output, in compensatory fashion. In vitro mechanistic studies confirmed that under low PPi mineralizing conditions, cementoblasts increased Ank (5-fold) and Enpp1 (20-fold), while increasing PPi inhibited mineralization and associated increases in Ank and Enpp1 mRNA. Conclusions: Results from these studies demonstrate a novel developmental regulation of acellular cementum, wherein cementoblasts tune cementogenesis by modulating local levels of PPi, directing and regulating mineral apposition. These findings underscore developmental differences in acellular versus cellular cementum, and suggest new approaches for cementum regeneration

    A systems-based human rights approach to a national food plan in the USA

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