30 research outputs found

    Towards a More Equal City: Framing the Challenges and Opportunities

    Get PDF
    Cities are growing differently today than before. As much as 70 percent of people in emerging cities in Asia, Africa and Latin America is under-served. Furthermore, cities face challenges in four areas:Highest rates of urbanization are in sub-Saharan Africa, South and Southeast AsiaUrbanization is now happening in more low-income countries than in the pastThe share of poor people living in urban areas is on the rise worldwideCities in the Global South have the fewest public resources per capitaWe need a new approach that will benefit all urban residents and create sustainable, productive cities for the 21st century. The World Resources Report (WRR) examines if prioritizing access to core urban services, we can create cities that are prosperous and sustainable for all people.This first installment of the WRR developed a new categorization of cities into emerging, struggling, thriving, and stabilizing cities. It focuses on solutions for struggling and emerging cities—over half the cities included in the analysis—because they have the greatest opportunity to alter their development trajectory

    Institutional perspectives on road pricing : essays on implementation, response, and adaptation

    Get PDF
    Thesis (Ph. D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Urban Studies and Planning, 2008.This electronic version was submitted by the student author. The certified thesis is available in the Institute Archives and Special Collections.Includes bibliographical references.Road pricing involves charging road users a fee for the external social costs of using private vehicles. These costs typically remain unaccounted for in routine road transport operations and benefit-cost analyses. They include the costs of travel delays for other road users due to congestion, the costs of air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions, and the health costs resulting from exposure to pollutants and road accidents. In spite of strong theoretical foundations dating back to the 1920s, road pricing remains politically difficult to implement for several reasons. These include concerns about equity impacts and the lack of alternatives to the use of private vehicles, lack of public acceptance for the idea of paying a charge for personal mobility, the administrative complexity of implementation, and the uncertain long term economic impacts of the policy. My dissertation focuses on the institutional challenges to implementation of road pricing that have not received adequate attention in literature, through three papers on the following topics. 1) Vehicle Restrictions in Four Latin American Cities: Is Congestion Pricing Possible? 2) Potential Impacts of Road Pricing on Businesses and Freight Transport: The Case of the Netherlands 3) Implications of the London Congestion Charge for Firms in Key Economic Sectors: Influencing Factors, Impacts, and Responses In Paper 1, I examine the problems related to adopting road pricing in cities of the developing world that are motorizing rapidly. There are very few studies of this policy in the context of the social, economic, and institutional constraints unique to urban areas in developing countries. The cases studied include four Latin American cities where the command-and-control policy of vehicle circulation bans is already in effect for over a decade, in response to environmental and transportation problems. These restrictions have not been able to prevent the growth in car ownership and traffic congestion, creating the need to consider alternative market-based approaches such as road pricing along with complementary investments in urban public transportation.(cont.) In Paper 2, I develop a conceptual framework and propositions to examine the impacts of road pricing on businesses. Distance-based road pricing has been proposed for all roads in the Netherlands and will be applicable to all vehicles from the year 2012. I discuss different theoretical frameworks that may be applied to the subject of firm response to road pricing, focusing on the use of institutional theories such as the resource dependency theory. These theories are particularly instructive in understanding how road pricing might affect firm behavior and economic relationships. I use ideas on organizational adaptation from literature on organization theory to understand the factors affecting firm response to road pricing. In Paper 3, I adapt and apply the conceptual framework developed in Paper 2 by conducting a survey of businesses in diverse economic sectors in London. The survey instrument included questions about how businesses have altered their locations, logistics operations, policies with respect to employees, and customer-supplier relationships in response to the London congestion charging scheme. I study how these changes may have affected their performance and competitiveness. I found that firm characteristics such as sector, size, and location govern the impacts of congestion charging through institutional variables such as bargaining power within the supply chain, reliance on freight transport, and the effect of other regulations. The findings of this paper are valuable for other cities planning the implementation of road pricing. Together, papers 2 and 3 contribute to a better understanding of the impacts of road pricing on businesses and economic activity using an institutional economic approach.by Anjali Mahendra.Ph.D

    Congestion pricing in cities of the developing world : exploring prospects in Mexico City

    Get PDF
    Thesis (M.C.P.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Urban Studies and Planning; and, (S.M. in Transportation)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 2004.This electronic version was submitted by the student author. The certified thesis is available in the Institute Archives and Special Collections.Includes bibliographical references (leaves 137-143).(cont.) academics, researchers, and practitioners interested in improving transportation and air quality in the region. The survey shows that there is hesitation in considering any such policy in the MCMA without prior improvements in public transport. In light of these findings, we have outlined the complicated issues surrounding implementation, with recommendations for a course of action given the current policy agenda. The findings presented in this thesis can be used by decision makers in Mexico City to design a set of policies for improving mobility, with a better understanding of the issues surrounding congestion pricing.Car ownership in many large cities of the developing world is rapidly increasing with rising incomes, and is accompanied by traffic gridlock, travel delays, and deteriorating air quality. The policy of congestion pricing to manage growing travel demand has been implemented with varying degrees of success in some developed countries. This thesis explores the applicability of congestion pricing in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). Current transportation policies in the MCMA were studied, with an analysis of the factors causing increased demand for private transport. Of the many forms in which congestion pricing may be implemented, we focused on the possibility of a central city congestion zone similar to that recently implemented in the city of London, providing arguments for its viability, and preliminary analyses regarding potential impacts. We studied how household level car ownership had changed for different income groups in Mexico City between 1994 and 2000, in order to make empirical estimates of the distributional impacts that a congestion pricing scheme might have. Our results show that the location of low income car owning households far from the central areas, and their limited access to efficient public transport creates negative consequences for them. Yet, significant overall reductions in traffic and travel time savings are possible with a congestion charge. Lower income people can benefit if the revenues from congestion pricing are used to improve their accessibility to public transport. Congestion pricing is difficult to implement, especially given the decentralization and overlapping levels of political authority in the MCMA. As part of this research, we surveyed various Mexican government officials,by Anjali Mahendra.S.M.in TransportationM.C.P

    Clinicosociodemographic profile of ruptured ectopic pregnancies at a tertiary care centre

    Get PDF
    Background: Rupture of an ectopic pregnancy remains the most dreaded complication of a pregnancy related event and is the commonest cause of maternal mortality in the first trimester of pregnancy. In the developing countries, the maternal death rate among patients admitted with ectopic pregnancy was found to be as high as one in ten. In addition to high risk for mortality, rupture of an ectopic pregnancy could affect future fertility of a woman. The objectives of this study are to analyse the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics and find out the incidence rate and risk factors associated with ruptured ectopic pregnancies in a tertiary care institution.Methods: This is a retrospective study and was conducted over a period of one year from September 2015 to September 2016 in Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Institute of Medical Sciences, BHU, Varanasi, India. It is a tertiary care centre getting referrals not only from nearby cities and hospitals but also from major cities of neighbour states. During this time frame a total of 2601 deliveries have taken place and 57 cases of ruptured ectopic pregnancies were reported. Data were collected in a preconceived format.Results: Total numbers of vaginal deliveries were 2601 during the study period. Out of which 63 (2.42%) were found to be ectopic pregnancies and 57 (1.99%) were diagnosed as ruptured ectopic pregnancies. Maximum number of patients (70.17%) were between 21 and 30 years of age. As far as parity is concerned only 12.29 % of patients were primigravida where as 70.71% patients were multigravida. Previous history of pelvic inflammatory disease was associated among maximum number of cases i.e 50.87% of total number of cases. Among other risk factors, previous abortions, previous ectopic pregnancies and history of infertility treatment were the prime ones. Maximum number of patients were from lower and lower middle class socioeconomic status. Ampullary type of Tubal ectopic pregnancies were found to be the commonest ones. Two cornual pregnancies and two ovarian pregnancies were also found in this series. In 85.97 % of patients the amount of hemoperitoneum was found to be more than 500 ml.Conclusions: There is high incidence rate of ectopic pregnancy and low rate of diagnosis before rupture occurs in developing nations as in our scenario. Pelvic inflammatory disease, Maternal education, socioeconomic status, parity and history of subfertilty are the risk factors associated with ruptured ectopic pregnancy. Effective efforts should be taken to encourage the level of education and improve the rate of diagnosis among health care providers before the occurrence of rupture

    An Evaluation of the Genotoxic Effects of Seed Decoction of Cassia tora L. (Leguminosae) in Allium cepa Model

    Get PDF
    Cytological effects of Cassia tora seed decoction were evaluated in Allium cepa root tip cells. Bulbs were grown in pure tap water (controls, Gr. I) and also in six concentrations (0.15 mg/ml, 0.31 mg/ml, 0.62 mg/ml, 1.25 mg/ml, 2.5 mg/ml and 5 mg/ml) of C.tora seed decoction in tap water (experimental, Grs. II). Parameters of study were \u27mean root length\u27 and morphology i.e. colour and shape of root tips at 72 hr of cultivation and \u27mitotic Index\u27, chromosomal aberrations and abnormal mitosis at 48 hr of cultivation. Physico-chemical characterization of decoction was also made. No changes in the morphology of root tips occurred at any concentration of C.tora seed decoction, however, change in color did occur at all concentrations. Mitotic index and mean root length remained unaffected at first two concentrations but all higher four concentrations caused progressive mitodepression hence a decline in root growth occurred. No abnormal mitosis and no chromosomal aberration occurred at all at any concentration. Results suggest that water soluble constituents of C.tora seeds could only lower mitosis but not caused any adverse genotoxic effects in mitotically dividing A.cepa root cells under laboratory condition

    Reviewing the scope and thematic focus of 100,000 publications on energy consumption, services and social aspects of climate change: a big data approach to demand-side mitigation

    Get PDF
    As current action remains insufficient to meet the goals of the Paris agreement let alone to stabilize the climate, there is increasing hope that solutions related to demand, services and social aspects of climate change mitigation can close the gap. However, given these topics are not investigated by a single epistemic community, the literature base underpinning the associated research continues to be undefined. Here, we aim to delineate a plausible body of literature capturing a comprehensive spectrum of demand, services and social aspects of climate change mitigation. As method we use a novel double-stacked expert—machine learning research architecture and expert evaluation to develop a typology and map key messages relevant for climate change mitigation within this body of literature. First, relying on the official key words provided to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change by governments (across 17 queries), and on specific investigations of domain experts (27 queries), we identify 121 165 non-unique and 99 065 unique academic publications covering issues relevant for demand-side mitigation. Second, we identify a literature typology with four key clusters: policy, housing, mobility, and food/consumption. Third, we systematically extract key content-based insights finding that the housing literature emphasizes social and collective action, whereas the food/consumption literatures highlight behavioral change, but insights also demonstrate the dynamic relationship between behavioral change and social norms. All clusters point to the possibility of improved public health as a result of demand-side solutions. The centrality of the policy cluster suggests that political actions are what bring the different specific approaches together. Fourth, by mapping the underlying epistemic communities we find that researchers are already highly interconnected, glued together by common interests in sustainability and energy demand. We conclude by outlining avenues for interdisciplinary collaboration, synthetic analysis, community building, and by suggesting next steps for evaluating this body of literature

    Vehicle Restrictions in Four Latin American Cities: Is Congestion Pricing Possible?

    No full text
    An exploratory study of the prospects for congestion pricing in four Latin American metropolitan areas where traffic bans currently exist—Santiago de Chile, Mexico City, So Paulo, and Bogot—is presented. Through a historical analysis of the implementation process and experience of the traffic bans, along with a snowball-sampled survey of transportation experts in each city, three factors are found to be the most important to ensure favourable prospects for implementing congestion pricing in these cities: (1) widespread public information regarding the environmental and health risks of traffic congestion and resulting air pollution; (2) implementation of complementary policies such as public transport enhancements and increased parking fees in congested areas; and (3) development of a knowledge culture among politicians and experts through discourse on alternative road pricing policies based on systematic analysis. Among other pertinent issues discussed, the work shows that the equity concerns for low-income car drivers often cited in discussions on congestion pricing in developed countries are less applicable in the cases studied. A key concern is the lack of political will because it is people with relatively higher incomes and political influence who predominantly own and use cars in these four cities. The findings, though exploratory, are important because the potential of congestion pricing to manage the rapid pace of motorization in the developing world is not well studied. This paper presents an initial step towards studying the implementation of the policy in developing countries

    Not Available

    No full text
    Not AvailableTwelve Murrah buffaloes in second or third parity during early lactation (50–70 days) were selected from the Institute’s herd. All the buffaloes were kept under loose housing system and were provided ad lib green maize fodder and water to drink during 30 days experiment during the month of August- September. The buffaloes were divided into two groups of six each. Showering group (SG) buffaloes were kept under water showers from 11:00 A.M. to 4:00 P.M., while wallowing group (WG) buffaloes were allowed to wallow in a water pond during the same time. Physiological responses viz. rectal temperature (RT), respiration rate (RR), pulse rate (PR) and skin temperature (ST) were recorded before (8.00 A.M.) and after (4.00 P.M.) showers or wallowing. Skin temperature at different sites i.e. trunk, forehead, udder, udder vein, and neck regions was measured. Skin and rectal temperature of both the groups were non significant in morning but varied (P<0.01) in the evening. Skin temperature mea sured at all the sites was significantly lower (P< 0.01) in wallowing buffaloes than the showering group. Further, skin temperature of neck, head, udder, udder vein and RT varied (P<0.01) in SG and WG buffaloes during periods of study. The significant changes in all the parameters of study further support the evidence on effective cooling of skin by wallowing in comparison to water showers. The correlation data indicated a positive correlation of maximum air temperature with RT in SG but correlation was non-significant in WG. RT was positively correlated with ST in SG (P<0.05) and WG (P<0.01). The pooled data analysis of both groups also indicated a positive correlation of maximum temperature with RT (P<0.05). The morning respiration and pulse rate non-significantly varied in both group, however, in the evening, the respiration rate and pulse rate was more (P<0.01) in SG in comparison to WG. No adverse effect of wallowing or shower treatment on mastitis inci dence and general health of animals was observed.Not Availabl

    Not Available

    No full text
    Not AvailableNot AvailableNot Availabl
    corecore