30 research outputs found

### Fracture precursors in disordered systems

A two-dimensional lattice model with bond disorder is used to investigate the
fracture behaviour under stress-controlled conditions. Although the cumulative
energy of precursors does not diverge at the critical point, its derivative
with respect to the control parameter (reduced stress) exhibits a singular
behaviour. Our results are nevertheless compatible with previous experimental
findings, if one restricts the comparison to the (limited) range accessible in
the experiment. A power-law avalanche distribution is also found with an
exponent close to the experimental values.Comment: 4 pages, 5 figures. Submitted to Europhysics Letter

### Stochastics theory of log-periodic patterns

We introduce an analytical model based on birth-death clustering processes to
help understanding the empirical log-periodic corrections to power-law scaling
and the finite-time singularity as reported in several domains including
rupture, earthquakes, world population and financial systems. In our
stochastics theory log-periodicities are a consequence of transient clusters
induced by an entropy-like term that may reflect the amount of cooperative
information carried by the state of a large system of different species. The
clustering completion rates for the system are assumed to be given by a simple
linear death process. The singularity at t_{o} is derived in terms of
birth-death clustering coefficients.Comment: LaTeX, 1 ps figure - To appear J. Phys. A: Math & Ge

### Log-periodic corrections to scaling: exact results for aperiodic Ising quantum chains

Log-periodic amplitudes of the surface magnetization are calculated
analytically for two Ising quantum chains with aperiodic modulations of the
couplings. The oscillating behaviour is linked to the discrete scale invariance
of the perturbations. For the Fredholm sequence, the aperiodic modulation is
marginal and the amplitudes are obtained as functions of the deviation from the
critical point. For the other sequence, the perturbation is relevant and the
critical surface magnetization is studied.Comment: 12 pages, TeX file, epsf, iopppt.tex, xref.tex which are joined. 4
postcript figure

### New model for surface fracture induced by dynamical stress

We introduce a model where an isotropic, dynamically-imposed stress induces
fracture in a thin film. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we study how the
integrated fragment distribution function depends on the rate of change and
magnitude of the imposed stress, as well as on temperature. A mean-field
argument shows that the system becomes unstable for a critical value of the
stress. We find a striking invariance of the distribution of fragments for
fixed ratio of temperature and rate of change of the stress; the interval over
which this invariance holds is determined by the force fluctuations at the
critical value of the stress.Comment: Revtex, 4 pages, 4 figures available upon reques

### Possibility between earthquake and explosion seismogram differentiation by discrete stochastic non-Markov processes and local Hurst exponent analysis

The basic purpose of the paper is to draw the attention of researchers to new
possibilities of differentiation of similar signals having different nature.
One of examples of such kind of signals is presented by seismograms containing
recordings of earthquakes (EQ's) and technogenic explosions (TE's). We propose
here a discrete stochastic model for possible solution of a problem of strong
EQ's forecasting and differentiation of TE's from the weak EQ's. Theoretical
analysis is performed by two independent methods: with the use of statistical
theory of discrete non-Markov stochastic processes (Phys. Rev. E62,6178 (2000))
and the local Hurst exponent. Time recordings of seismic signals of the first
four dynamic orthogonal collective variables, six various plane of phase
portrait of four dimensional phase space of orthogonal variables and the local
Hurst exponent have been calculated for the dynamic analysis of the earth
states. The approaches, permitting to obtain an algorithm of strong EQ's
forecasting and to differentiate TE's from weak EQ's, have been developed.Comment: REVTEX +12 ps and jpg figures. Accepted for publication in Phys. Rev.
E, December 200

### Rupture Pressure Prediction for Composite High Pressure Tanks Using Acoustic Emission

The French Aerospace company AEROSPATIALE manufactures high pressure tanks for helium gas storage. Because these tanks are critical elements for rockets and satellites, a new approach has been developed to have a better knowledge of the structure reliability. Although numerical tools such as finite elements codes are used for the design of such structures and. quality rules are imposed to insure that the tanks manufactured are in accordance to the definition, it is conceivable that even a successful proof test could actually damage the composite and lead to a residual SF less than 2

### Tri-critical behavior in rupture induced by disorder

We discover a qualitatively new behavior for systems where the load transfer
has limiting stress amplification as in real fiber composites. We find that the
disorder is a relevant field leading to tri--criticality, separating a
first-order regime where rupture occurs without significant precursors from a
second-order regime where the macroscopic elastic coefficient exhibit power law
behavior. Our results are based on analytical analysis of fiber bundle models
and numerical simulations of a two-dimensional tensorial spring-block system in
which stick-slip motion and fracture compete.Comment: Revtex, 10 pages, 4 figures available upon reques

### On the Occurrence of Finite-Time-Singularities in Epidemic Models of Rupture, Earthquakes and Starquakes

We present a new kind of critical stochastic finite-time-singularity, relying
on the interplay between long-memory and extreme fluctuations. We illustrate it
on the well-established epidemic-type aftershock (ETAS) model for aftershocks,
based solely on the most solidly documented stylized facts of seismicity
(clustering in space and in time and power law Gutenberg-Richter distribution
of earthquake energies). This theory accounts for the main observations (power
law acceleration and discrete scale invariant structure) of critical rupture of
heterogeneous materials, of the largest sequence of starquakes ever attributed
to a neutron star as well as of earthquake sequences.Comment: Revtex document of 4 pages including 1 eps figur

### Log-periodic route to fractal functions

Log-periodic oscillations have been found to decorate the usual power law
behavior found to describe the approach to a critical point, when the
continuous scale-invariance symmetry is partially broken into a discrete-scale
invariance (DSI) symmetry. We classify the `Weierstrass-type'' solutions of the
renormalization group equation F(x)= g(x)+(1/m)F(g x) into two classes
characterized by the amplitudes A(n) of the power law series expansion. These
two classes are separated by a novel ``critical'' point. Growth processes
(DLA), rupture, earthquake and financial crashes seem to be characterized by
oscillatory or bounded regular microscopic functions g(x) that lead to a slow
power law decay of A(n), giving strong log-periodic amplitudes. In contrast,
the regular function g(x) of statistical physics models with
``ferromagnetic''-type interactions at equibrium involves unbound logarithms of
polynomials of the control variable that lead to a fast exponential decay of
A(n) giving weak log-periodic amplitudes and smoothed observables. These two
classes of behavior can be traced back to the existence or abscence of
``antiferromagnetic'' or ``dipolar''-type interactions which, when present,
make the Green functions non-monotonous oscillatory and favor spatial modulated
patterns.Comment: Latex document of 29 pages + 20 ps figures, addition of a new
demonstration of the source of strong log-periodicity and of a justification
of the general offered classification, update of reference lis

### Comprehensive structural classification of ligand binding motifs in proteins

Comprehensive knowledge of protein-ligand interactions should provide a
useful basis for annotating protein functions, studying protein evolution,
engineering enzymatic activity, and designing drugs. To investigate the
diversity and universality of ligand binding sites in protein structures, we
conducted the all-against-all atomic-level structural comparison of over
180,000 ligand binding sites found in all the known structures in the Protein
Data Bank by using a recently developed database search and alignment
algorithm. By applying a hybrid top-down-bottom-up clustering analysis to the
comparison results, we determined approximately 3000 well-defined structural
motifs of ligand binding sites. Apart from a handful of exceptions, most
structural motifs were found to be confined within single families or
superfamilies, and to be associated with particular ligands. Furthermore, we
analyzed the components of the similarity network and enumerated more than 4000
pairs of ligand binding sites that were shared across different protein folds.Comment: 13 pages, 8 figure