111 research outputs found

    Isoprene Emission Rates from Extreme Heat Exposure Due to Climatic Changes on Quercus and Populus Tree Genera: A Systematic Review

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    This systematic literature review explores whether isoprene emission rates from common tree species would be exacerbated in a warming world. When isoprene reacts with other pollutants, such as nitrogen oxides, tropospheric ozone is formed. Ozone is harmful to human health and is shown to decrease lung function among many other negative respiratory effects. If the rates of emissions continue at their current levels, there may be increased rates of asthma-related ED visits and respiratory diseases among the general population

    Impact of Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Interventions on Environmental Enteric Dysfunction in Children in Developing Countries: A Systematic Literature Review

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    Environmental Enteric Dysfunction (EED) is a global disturbance of intestinal structure and function that has its origin in environmental factors (Owino et al. 2016). As a response to prolonged and persistent inflammation, the intestine morphology is altered. EED is an important contributor to poor child cognitive development, child stunting, poor oral vaccine response, acute infections, and childhood mortality globally (Trehan et al. 2016) in developing countries. We hypothesized that WASH interventions could reduce the risk of EED, thereby positively impacting children’s overall health. The Navigation Guide review methodology and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment and Evaluation (GRADE) were followed to conduct this systematic review. Protocol, including exclusion and inclusion criteria, was developed prior to the review to maintain the transparency of the systematic review. PubMed and Scopus were used to search for studies. Lastly, a qualitative analysis was conducted to evaluate the qualifying studies. Four studies met our inclusion criteria. Inventions were: Safe disposal of child feces; household environmental cleanliness; household fecal sludge management; and sanitation (presence of toilets). The studies assessed EED by a laboratory diagnostic. All four studies found a significant reduction of EED in the intervention group compared to the control group. Findings of these studies suggest that WASH could be an effective tool in preventing EED. As prevention is seen to be the only alternative to overcome EED in children, these results also show the need for additional research to determine the most effective WASH intervention

    Using atmospheric models to estimate global air pollution mortality

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    Ground-level ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) are associated with premature mortality and can influence air quality on global scales. This work examines the global health impacts of ozone and PM2.5 using concentrations simulated by global chemical transport models (CTMs), which allow full spatial coverage and analysis of hypothetical changes in emissions. Here, previous methods using global models are improved by using cause-specific and country-specific baseline mortality rates, and by using area-weighted average rates where gridcells overlap multiple countries. Using these methods, we estimate 0.7 [plus or minus] 0.3 and 3.7 [plus or minus] 1.0 million global premature deaths annually due to anthropogenic ozone and PM2.5, found as the difference between simulations with and without anthropogenic emissions. PM2.5 mortality estimates are ~50% higher than previous measurement-based estimates based on common assumptions, mainly because rural populations are included, suggesting higher estimates, although the coarsely resolved global atmospheric model may underestimate urban PM2.5 exposures. Estimating the mortality impacts of intercontinental transport of ozone shows that for North America, East Asia, South Asia, and Europe, foreign ozone precursor emission reductions contribute ~30%, 30%, 20%, and >50% of the deaths avoided by reducing emissions in all regions together. For North America and Europe, reducing precursor emissions avoids more deaths outside the source region than within, due mainly to larger foreign populations. Finally, using the MOZART-4 global CTM, we estimate that halving global anthropogenic black carbon (BC) emissions reduces population-weighted average PM2.5 by 542 ng/m3 (1.8%) and avoids 157,000 (95% confidence interval, 120,000-194,000) annual premature deaths globally, with the vast majority occurring within the source region. Over 80% of these deaths occur in Asia, with 50% greater mortality impacts per unit BC emitted for South Asian versus East Asian emissions. Globally, the contribution of residential, industrial, and transportation BC emissions to BC-related mortality is 1.3, 1.2, and 0.6 times each sector's contribution to anthropogenic BC emissions, owing to the degree of co-location with population. Future research should improve upon the many sources of uncertainty, incorporate shifting demographics, and examine the health impacts of realistic emission control technologies, which would affect emissions of multiple species simultaneously

    Toward a Resilient Global Society: Air, Sea Level, Earthquakes, and Weather

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    Society‚Äôs progress along the four corners of prepare, absorb, respond and adapt resilience square is uneven, in spite of our understanding of the foundational science and a growing sense that urgent action is needed. The resilience vignettes describe the meaning and impact of current and near‚Äźterm change in four major domains: human health impacts from air pollution, coastal inundation from sea‚Äźlevel rise, damaging earthquakes in populated areas, and impacts from extreme precipitation. Given our understanding of the scientific principles, societal action, from preparation to adaption, will be critical in minimizing the negative impacts of change. The unprecedented rates of change in today‚Äôs Earth system argue for urgent action in support of a resilient global society.Key PointsUnprecedented rates of change in the Earth system argue for more urgent action in support of a resilient global societyExperts describe the meaning and impact of current and near‚Äźterm change in four major domainsWe take an ensemble approach to highlight the similarities for actionable decision‚ÄźmakingPeer Reviewedhttps://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/151889/1/eft2547_am.pdfhttps://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/151889/2/eft2547.pd

    Health‚ÄźDamaging Climate Events Highlight the Need for Interdisciplinary, Engaged Research

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    In 2023 human populations experienced multiple record‚Äźbreaking climate events, with widespread impacts on human health and well‚Äźbeing. These events include extreme heat domes, drought, severe storms, flooding, and wildfires. Due to inherent lags in the climate system, we can expect such extremes to continue for multiple decades after reaching net zero carbon emissions. Unfortunately, despite these significant current and future impacts, funding for research in climate and health has lagged behind that for other geoscience and biomedical research. While some initial efforts from funding agencies are evident, there is still a significant need to increase the resources available for multidisciplinary research in the face of this issue. As a group of experts at this important intersection, we call for a more concerted effort to encourage interdisciplinary and policy‚Äźrelevant investigations into the detrimental health effects of continued climate change
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