886 research outputs found

    Fragmentation of relativistic nuclei in peripheral interactions in nuclear track emulsion

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    The technique of nuclear track emulsions is used to explore the fragmentation of light relativistic nuclei down to the most peripheral interactions - nuclear "white" stars. A complete pattern of therelativistic dissociation of a 8^8B nucleus with target fragment accompaniment is presented. Relativistic dissociation 9^{9}Be2α\to2\alpha is explored using significant statistics and a relative contribution of 8^{8}Be decays from 0+^+ and 2+^+ states is established. Target fragment accompaniments are shown for relativistic fragmentation 14^{14}N\to3He+H and 22^{22}Ne\to5He. The leading role of the electromagnetic dissociation on heavy nuclei with respect to break-ups on target protons is demonstrated in all these cases. It is possible to conclude that the peripheral dissociation of relativistic nuclei in nuclear track emulsion is a unique tool to study many-body systems composed of lightest nuclei and nucleons in the energy scale relevant for nuclear astrophysics.Comment: 15 pages, 4 figures, 4 tables, conference: Relativistic nuclear physics: from Nuclotron to LHC energies, Kiev, June 18-22, 200

    The policy of import substitution as the basis for economic security and well-being of society

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    The study presents the analysis of import substitution opportunities on separate branches of economic activity, preceding the realization of import substitution policy with the aim to support national economic security, which is essential for the contemporary society welfare insurance. Currently, social well-being is considered to be the reflection of economic activity, the instrument of state influence on the society, as well as an indicator of the social security system. Due to the fact that Russia is integrated into the world economy, the foreign-economic policy currently is playing an important role in the development of national security and the state's interest to the spheres of economy considering external and internal threats. Decline in external economic conditions may result in serious consequences for the functioning and development of the country as well as for the trade and investment activities, which will further lead to the decline in export, withdrawal of capital, recession of industrial production, trade and investment sphere, fall of GDP and living standards. Thus, considering the current state of instability in the world economy and the growing political tension in relation to Russian Federation, the measures to increase economic security in the country should be taken. The policy of import substitution is considered to be one of the major solutions nowadays

    SEM and AFM studies of two-phase magnetic alkali borosilicate glasses

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    The morphology and composition of four types of two-phase alkali borosilicate glasses with magnetic atoms prepared by inductive melting have been studied. The results of scanning electron microscopy point to uniform distribution of Na, Si, and O atoms in these samples whilemagnetic iron atoms formball-shaped agglomerates. The magnetic properties of these agglomerates have been confirmed by magnetic force microscopy. Atomic force microscopy had shown that in these samples two different morphological structures, drop-like and dendrite net, are formed. The formation of dendrite-like structure is a necessary condition for production of porous magnetic glasses. The obtained results allowus to optimize the melting and heat treatment processes leading to production of porous alkali borosilicate glasses withmagnetic properties. The first results for nanocompositematerials on the basis ofmagnetic glasses containing the embedded ferroelectrics KH2PO4 demonstrate the effect of applied magnetic field on the ferroelectric phase transition. The morphology and composition of four types of two-phase alkali borosilicate glasses with magnetic atoms prepared by inductive melting have been studied. The results of scanning electron microscopy point to uniform distribution of Na, Si, and O atoms in these samples whilemagnetic iron atoms formball-shaped agglomerates. The magnetic properties of these agglomerates have been confirmed by magnetic force microscopy. Atomic force microscopy had shown that in these samples two different morphological structures, drop-like and dendrite net, are formed. The formation of dendrite-like structure is a necessary condition for production of porous magnetic glasses. The obtained results allowus to optimize the melting and heat treatment processes leading to production of porous alkali borosilicate glasses withmagnetic properties. The first results for nanocompositematerials on the basis ofmagnetic glasses containing the embedded ferroelectrics KH2PO4 demonstrate the effect of applied magnetic field on the ferroelectric phase transition.DAA

    Electromagnetic dissociation of relativistic 8^8B nuclei in nuclear track emulsion

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    Experimental data on fragmentation channels in peripheral interactions of 8^8B nuclei in nuclear track emulsions are presented. A detailed analysis made it possible to justify selections of events of the electromagnetic-dissociation process 8^8B 7\to^7Be + \emph{p} and to estimate its cross section. Events of 10^{10}C peripheral dissociation that were observed in the same exposure are described.Comment: 12 pages, 10 figures, 4 tables, Published in Phys.Atom.Nucl.72:690-701,200

    Exposure of Nuclear Track Emulsion to a Mixed Beam of Relativistic 12^{12}N, 10^{10}C, and 7^7Be Nuclei

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    A nuclear track emulsion was exposed to a mixed beam of relativistic 12^{12}N, 10^{10}C, and 7^7Be nuclei having a momentum of 2 GeV/cc per nucleon. The beam was formed upon charge exchange processes involving 12^{12}C primary nuclei and their fragmentation. An analysis indicates that 10^{10}C nuclei are dominant in the beam and that 12^{12}N nuclei are present in it. The charge topology of relativistic fragments in the coherent dissociation of these nuclei is presented.Comment: ISSN 1063-7788, Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 201

    Impact of climate change on the ground thermal regime in the lower Lena region, Arctic central Siberia

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    This paper presents the results of 30 years of permafrost thermal monitoring in the Tiksi area in the eastern Russian Arctic. At a stone ridge site, the mean annual temperatures in the upper 30 m of the ground have increased by 1–2.4 C compared to the first years of observations, with trends of C/yr. At the same time, its change was uneven. In the last 20 years, the rate of increase has increased compared with the first decade of observations. At wet tundra sites in the foothill plain, the mean annual temperatures at the top of permafrost have increased by 2.4–2.6 C between 2005 and 2022 at rates of 0.11–0.15 C/yr, and the active layer thicknesses have increased at rates of 0.05–0.41 cm/yr

    The use of ultrasonic cavitation for near-surface structuring of robust and low-cost AlNi catalysts for hydrogen production

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    Ultrasonically induced shock waves stimulate intensive interparticle collisions in suspensions and create large local temperature gradients in AlNi particles. These trigger phase transformations at the surface rather than in the particle interior. We show that ultrasonic processing is an effective approach for developing the desired compositional gradients in nm-thick interfacial regions of metal alloys and formation of effective catalysts toward the hydrogen evolution reaction

    Algorithm engineering for optimal alignment of protein structure distance matrices

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    Protein structural alignment is an important problem in computational biology. In this paper, we present first successes on provably optimal pairwise alignment of protein inter-residue distance matrices, using the popular Dali scoring function. We introduce the structural alignment problem formally, which enables us to express a variety of scoring functions used in previous work as special cases in a unified framework. Further, we propose the first mathematical model for computing optimal structural alignments based on dense inter-residue distance matrices. We therefore reformulate the problem as a special graph problem and give a tight integer linear programming model. We then present algorithm engineering techniques to handle the huge integer linear programs of real-life distance matrix alignment problems. Applying these techniques, we can compute provably optimal Dali alignments for the very first time

    Feasibility of study magnetic proximity effects in bilayer "superconductor/ferromagnet" using waveguide-enhanced Polarized Neutron Reflectometry

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    A resonant enhancement of the neutron standing waves is proposed to use in order to increase the magnetic neutron scattering from a "superconductor/ferromagnet"(S/F) bilayer. The model calculations show that usage of this effect allows to increase the magnetic scattering intensity by factor of hundreds. Aspects related to the growth procedure (order of deposition, roughness of the layers etc) as well as experimental conditions (resolution, polarization of the neutron beam, background etc) are also discussed. Collected experimental data for the S/F heterostructure Cu(32nm)/V(40nm)/Fe(1nm)/MgO confirmed the presence of a resonant 60-fold amplification of the magnetic scattering.Comment: The manuscript of the article submitted to Crysstalography Reports. 23 pages, 5 figure
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