58 research outputs found

    Trade Coefficients and the Role of Elasticity in a Spatial CGE Model Based on the Armington Assumption

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    The Armington Assumption in the context of multi-regional CGE models is commonly interpreted as follows: Same commodities with different origins are imperfect substitutes for each other. In this paper, a static spatial CGE model that is compatible with this assumption and explicitly considers the transport sector and regional price differentials is formulated. Trade coefficients, which are derived endogenously from the optimization behaviors of firms and households, are shown to take the form of a potential function. To investigate how the elasticity of substitutions affects equilibrium solutions, a simpler version of the model that incorporates three regions and two sectors (besides the transport sector) is introduced. Results indicate: (1) if commodities produced in different regions are perfect substitutes, regional economies will be either autarkic or completely symmetric and (2) if they are imperfect substitutes, the impact of elasticity on the price equilibrium system as well as trade coefficients will be nonlinear and sometimes very sensitive.Armington Assumption, Spatial CGE, Elasticity of substitution, Trade coefficient, Econometric model

    Transport Sector and Regional Price Differentials: A SCGE Model for Chinese Provinces

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    With regression formulas replaced by equilibrium conditions, a spatial CGE model can substantially reduce data requirements. Detailed regional analyses are thus possible in countries where only limited regional statistics are available. While regional price differentials play important roles in multi-regional settings, transport does not receive much attention in existing models. This paper formulates a spatial CGE model that explicitly considers the transport sector and FOB/CIF prices. After describing the model, performance of our model is evaluated by comparing the benchmark equilibrium for China with survey-based regional I-O and interregional I-O tables for 1987. The structure of Chinese economies is summarized using information obtained from the benchmark equilibrium computation. This includes regional and sectoral production distributions and price differentials. The equilibrium for 1997 facilitates discussion of changes in regional economic structures that China has experienced in the decade

    An Economic Derivation on Trade Coefficients under the Framework of Multi-regional I-O Analysis

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    The gravity model, entropy model, potential type model and others like these have been adopted to formulate interregional trade coefficients under the framework of Multi-Regional I-O (MRIO) analysis. Since most of these models are based upon analogies in physics or on statistical principles, they do not provide a theoretical explanation from the view of a firm\u27s or individual\u27s rational and deterministic decision making. In this paper, according to the deterministic choice theory, not only is an alternative formulation of the trade coefficients presented, but also a discussion of an appropriate definition for purchasing prices indices. Since this formulation is consistent with the MRIO system, it can be employed as a useful model-building tool in multi-regional models such as the spatial CGE model

    A unified framework of trade in value added : physical, monetary, exchange rates, and GHG emissions

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    Koopman et al. (2014) developed a method to consistently decompose gross exports in value-added terms that accommodate infinite repercussions of international and inter-sector transactions. This provides a better understanding of trade in value added in global value chains than does the conventional gross exports method, which is affected by double-counting problems. However, the new framework is based on monetary input--output (IO) tables and cannot distinguish prices from quantities; thus, it is unable to consider financial adjustments through the exchange market. In this paper, we propose a framework based on a physical IO system, characterized by its linear programming equivalent that can clarify the various complexities relevant to the existing indicators and is proved to be consistent with Koopman\u27s results when the physical decompositions are evaluated in monetary terms. While international monetary tables are typically described in current U.S. dollars, the physical framework can elucidate the impact of price adjustments through the exchange market. An iterative procedure to calculate the exchange rates is proposed, and we also show that the physical framework is also convenient for considering indicators associated with greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions

    Spatial price equilibrium and the transport sector : a trade-consistent SCGE model

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    This paper presents a framework for an SCGE model that is compatible with the Armington assumption and explicitly considers transport activities. In the model, the trade coefficient takes the form of a potential function,and the equilibrium market price becomes similar to the price index of varietal goods in the context of new economic geography (NEG). The features of the model are investigated by using the minimal setting, which comprises two non-transport sectors and three regions. Because transport costs are given exogenously to facilitate study of their impacts, commodity prices are also determined relative to them. The model can be described as a system of homogeneous equations, where an output in one region can arbitrarily be determined similarly as a price in the Walrasian equilibrium. The model closure is sensitive to formulation consistency so that homogeneity of the system would be lost by use of an alternative form of trade coefficients

    Trade Coefficients and the Role of Elasticity in a Spatial CGE Model Based on the Armington Assumption

    Get PDF
    The Armington Assumption in the context of multi-regional CGE models is commonlyinterpreted as follows: Same commodities with different origins are imperfect substitutes for eachother. In this paper, a static spatial CGE model that is compatible with this assumption andexplicitly considers the transport sector and regional price differentials is formulated. Tradecoefficients, which are derived endogenously from the optimization behaviors of firms andhouseholds, are shown to take the form of a potential function. To investigate how the elasticityof substitutions affects equilibrium solutions, a simpler version of the model that incorporatesthree regions and two sectors (besides the transport sector) is introduced. Results indicate: (1) ifcommodities produced in different regions are perfect substitutes, regional economies will beeither autarkic or completely symmetric and (2) if they are imperfect substitutes, the impact ofelasticity on the price equilibrium system as well as trade coefficients will be nonlinear andsometimes very sensitive

    Tumour progression or pseudoprogression?:A review of post-treatment radiological appearances of glioblastoma

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    Glioblastoma (GBM) is a common brain tumour in adults, which, despite multimodality treatment, has a poor median survival. Efficacy of therapy is assessed by clinical examination and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features. There is now a recognised subset of treated patients with imaging features that indicate "progressive disease" according to Macdonald's criteria, but subsequently, show stabilisation or resolution without a change in treatment. In these cases of "pseudoprogression", it is believed that non-tumoural causes lead to increased contrast enhancement and conventional MRI is inadequate in distinguishing this from true tumour progression. Incorrect diagnosis is important, as failure to identify pseudoprogression could lead to an inappropriate change of effective therapy. The purpose of this review is to outline the current research into radiological assessment with MRI and molecular imaging of post-treatment GBMs, specifically the differentiation between pseudoprogression and tumour progression

    都市圏における活動の空間配置に関する総合的シミュレーション・モデルの開発

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    本文データは平成22年度国立国会図書館の学位論文(博士)のデジタル化実施により作成された画像ファイルを基にpdf変換したものである京都大学0048新制・論文博士博士(工学)乙第7734号論工博第2538号新制||工||860(附属図書館)UT51-92-B161(主査)教授 天野 光三, 教授 吉川 和広, 教授 岡田 憲夫学位規則第4条第2項該当Doctor of EngineeringKyoto UniversityDFA
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