1,403 research outputs found

    Journal Staff

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    The aim of this study was to examine the association between autobiographical memory specificity and future thinking in a depressed sample. A total of 88 individuals who meet the DSM-IV criteria of major depression were included and completed the autobiographical memory test (AMT) and the future thinking task (FTT). The FTT was an index of number of future plausible events, rating of likelihood and emotional valence. The results showed that positive future thinking was significantly correlated with retrieval of specific positive autobio-graphical memories (r = 0.23). Moreover, correlational analyses showed that positive autobiographical memo-ries were negatively correlated with extended autobiographical memories, repeated autobiographical memories, semantic associations and non-responses on the AMT. Self-report measures of depression and anxiety were not correlated with either the FTT or the AMT. The results of this cross-sectional study only give weak support for an association between autobiographical memory specificity and future thinking

    Journal Staff

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    Background: Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (ICBT) is a form of guided self-help that has been found to be effective for addressing several problems. The target for this type of therapy is usually restricted to one specific disorder. Tailoring the treatment widens the scope of ICBT in that it can address comorbid conditions directly. Objectives: The working, or therapeutic, alliance has been found to predict outcome in studies of face-to-face therapy. The extent to which these findings apply to ICBT is largely unknown. We therefore decided to find out whether the working alliance could predict outcome in tailored ICBT for anxiety disorders. Methods: Data were obtained from the treatment group (n=27) in a randomized controlled trial aiming to test the effects of tailored ICBT for anxiety disorders. The forthcoming study was designed to test the hypothesis that the working alliance measured both pre-treatment and early in treatment (week 3) can predict treatment outcome as measured by the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation–Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) in a heterogeneous group of patients with anxiety disorders (n=27). Results: Working alliance measured at week 3 into the treatment correlated significantly with the residual gain scores on the primary outcome measure (r=-.47, P=.019, n=25), while expected working alliance pre-treatment did not (r=-.17, P=.42, n=27). Conclusions: These results raise questions about the importance of working alliance in ICBT treatments, and suggest that the working alliance could be important in ICBT.Funding Agencies|Swedish Council for Working Life and Social Research|2008-1145|</p

    International Contracts in European Courts: Jurisdiction Under Article 5(1) of the Brussels Convention

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    Background: Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) has shown promising effects in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). However, to date no study has used a design where participants have been sampled solely from a clinical population. We aimed to investigate the acceptability, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of ICBT for IBS using a consecutively recruited sample from a gastroenterological clinic. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMethods: Sixty-one patients were randomized to 10 weeks of ICBT (n = 30) or a waiting list control (n = 31). The ICBT was guided by an online therapist and emphasized acceptance of symptoms through exposure and mindfulness training. Severity of IBS symptoms was measured with the Gastrointestinal symptom rating scale - IBS version (GSRS-IBS). Patients in both groups were assessed at pre- and post-treatment while only the ICBT group was assessed 12 months after treatment completion. Health economic data were also gathered at all assessment points and analyzed using bootstrap sampling. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResults: Fifty of 61 patients (82%) completed the post-treatment assessment and 20 of 30 patients (67%) in the ICBT group were assessed at 12-month follow-up. The ICBT group demonstrated significantly (p andlt; .001) larger improvements on the IBS-related outcome scales than the waiting list group. The between group effect size on GSRS-IBS was Cohens d = 0.77 (95% CI: 0.19-1.34). Similar effects were noted on measures of quality of life and IBS-related fear and avoidance behaviors. Improvements in the ICBT group were maintained at 12-month follow-up. The ICBT condition was found to be more cost-effective than the waiting list, with an 87% chance of leading to reduced societal costs combined with clinical effectiveness. The cost-effectiveness was sustained over the 12-month period. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusions: ICBT proved to be a cost-effective treatment when delivered to a sample recruited from a gastroenterological clinic. However, many of the included patients dropped out of the study and the overall treatment effects were smaller than previous studies with referred and self-referred samples. ICBT may therefore be acceptable and effective for only a subset of clinical patients. Study dropout seemed to be associated with severe symptoms and large impairment. Objective and empirically validated criteria to select which patients to offer ICBT should be developed.Funding Agencies|Stockholm City Council||Stockholm Centre for Psychiatry Research, Linkoping University||Soderstrom-Konigska Foundation||Bror Gadelius Foundation|

    Response: Rights as Trumps of What?

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    Background: Smartphone technology presents a novel and promising opportunity to extend the reach of psychotherapeutic interventions by moving selected parts of the therapy into the real-life situations causing distress. This randomised controlled trial will investigate the effects of a transdiagnostic, Internet-administered cognitive behavioural (iCBT) self-help program for anxiety, supplemented with a smartphone application. The effect of added therapist support will also be studied. Methods/Design: One hundred and fifty participants meeting diagnostic criteria for social anxiety disorder and/or panic disorder will be evenly randomised to either one of three study groups: 1, smartphone-supplemented iCBT with therapist support; 2, smartphone-supplemented iCBT without therapist support; or 3, an active waiting list control group with delayed treatment. Primary outcome measure will be the Generalised Anxiety Disorder 7-item self-rating scale. Secondary measures include other anxiety, depression and quality of life measures. In addition to pre- and post-treatment measurements, the study includes two mid-treatment (days 24 and 48) and two follow-up assessments (12 and 36 months) to assess rapid and long-term effects. Discussion: To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the effectiveness of smartphone-supplemented iCBT for anxiety disorders. Hence, the findings from this trial will constitute great advancements in the burgeoning and promising field of smartphone-administered psychological interventions. Limitations are discussed

    Journal Staff

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    Introduction Cognitive behaviour therapy delivered in the format of guided self-help via the internet has been found to be effective for a range of conditions, including depression and anxiety disorders. Recent results indicate that guided self-help via the internet is a promising treatment format also for psychodynamic therapy. However, to date and to our knowledge, no study has evaluated internet-delivered psychodynamic therapy as a transdiagnostic treatment. The affect-phobia model of psychopathology by McCullough et al provides a psychodynamic conceptualisation of a range of psychiatric disorders. The aim of this study will be to test the effects of a transdiagnostic guided self-help treatment based on the affect-phobia model in a sample of clients with depression and anxiety. Methods and analysis This study will be a randomised controlled trial with a total sample size of 100 participants. The treatment group receives a 10-week, psychodynamic, guided self-help treatment based on the transdiagnostic affect-phobia model of psychopathology. The treatment consists of eight text-based treatment modules and includes therapist contact in a secure online environment. Participants in the control group receive similar online therapist support without any treatment modules. Outcome measures are the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire Depression Scale and the 7-item Generalised Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7). Process measures that concerns emotional processing and mindfulness are included. All outcome and process measures will be administered weekly via the internet and at 6-month follow-up. Discussion This trial will add to the body of knowledge on internet-delivered psychological treatments in general and to psychodynamic treatments in particular. We also hope to provide new insights in the effectiveness and working mechanisms of psychodynamic therapy based on the affect-phobia model

    The Development and Failure of Social Norms in Second Life

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    This Note analyzes the development and efficacy of social norms in maximizing the welfare of participants in the virtual community of Second Life. Although some of these norms developed appropriately in response to the objectives and purposes of this virtual world, Second Life is so thoroughly steeped in conditions that have impeded the development of successful social norms in other communities that any system of social norms in Second Life will ultimately fail. Because social norms will likely,fail to successfully maximize resident welfare, regulatory schemes imposed both by the operators of the virtual world and by real-world governing institutions are needed to enhance the functioning of this particular alternative reality inhabited by millions

    The Death Knell For the Death Penalty and the Significance of Global Realism to its Abolition from Glossip v. Gross to Brumfield v. Cain

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    Objectives For the last decade a host of different projects have been launched to allow persons who are concerned about their hearing status to quickly and at a low cost test their hearing ability. Most often, this is carried out without collecting complementary information that could be correlated with hearing impairment. In this two-part study we first, present the development and validation of a novel Internet-based hearing test, and second, report on the associations between this test and phonological representation, quality of life and self-reported hearing difficulties. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting An opportunity sample of participants was recruited at the Stockholm central station for the first study. All parts of the second study were conducted via the Internet, with testing and self-report forms adapted for online use. Participants The first part of the study was carried out in direct contact with the participants, and participants from the second study were recruited by means of advertisements in newspapers and on webpages. The only exclusion criterion was that participants had to be over 18 years old. Most participants were between 60 and 69 years old. There were almost an equal number of men and women (total n=316). Outcome measures 48 participants failed the Internet-based hearing screening test. The group failing the test reported more problems on the Amsterdam Inventory of Auditory Disability. In addition, they were found to have diminished phonological representational skills. However, no difference in quality of life was found. Conclusions Almost one in five participants was in need of contacting their local hearing clinic. This group had more complaints regarding tinnitus and hyperacusis, rated their own hearing as worse than those who passed, and had a poorer capability of generating accurate phonological representations. This study suggests that it is feasible to screen for hearing status online, and obtain valid data

    Homogenization of woven materials

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    The effective electric and magnetic material properties of a complex (twocomponent) mixture are addressed. The mixture is periodic in two directions and has a finite thickness in the third direction. Specifically,the explicit problem of finding the effective electric parameters for slab that has been reinforced by a layer (or several layers) of glass fiber is investigated. The homogenization problem is solved by a series expansion (multiple-scale technique),and the numerical solution of the two-dimensional vector-valued problem is found by a FEM formulation. The FEM problem is non-standard due to the periodic boundary conditions of the problem. Several numerical computations show that the most important parameter of the effective permittivity is the volume fraction of the guest material in the host. The reflection and transmission properties of the homogenized material are also addressed

    Note From the Editor

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    Background and AimsTo review published studies on the effectiveness of combining cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) and motivational interviewing (MI) to treat comorbid clinical and subclinical alcohol use disorder (AUD) and major depression (MDD) and estimate the effect of this compared with usual care. MethodsWe conducted systematic literature searches in PubMed, PsycINFO and Embase up to June 2013 and identified additional studies through cross-references in included studies and systematic reviews. Twelve studies comprising 1721 patients met our inclusion criteria. The studies had sufficient statistical power to detect small effect sizes. ResultsCBT/MI proved effective for treating subclinical and clinical AUD and MDD compared with controls, with small overall effect sizes at post-treatment [g=0.17, confidence interval (CI)=0.07-0.28, Pless than0.001 for decrease of alcohol consumption and g=0.27, CI: 0.13-0.41, Pless than0.001 for decrease of symptoms of depression, respectively]. Subgroup analyses revealed no significant differences for both AUD and MDD. However, digital interventions showed a higher effect size for depression than face-to-face interventions (g=0.73 and g=0.23, respectively, P=0.030). ConclusionsCombined cognitive-behavioural therapy and motivational interviewing for clinical or subclinical depressive and alcohol use disorders has a small but clinically significant effect in treatment outcomes compared with treatment as usual

    Stabilization of evanescent wave propagation operators

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    This paper presents a stabilized scheme that solves the wave propagation problem in a general bianisotropic, stratified medium. The method utilizes the concept of propagators, i.e., the wave propagation operators that map the total tangential electric and magnetic fields from one plane in the slab to another. The scheme transforms the propagator approach into a scattering matrix form, where a spectral decomposition of the propagator enables separation of the exponentially growing and decaying terms in order to obtain a well-conditioned formulation. Multilayer structures can be handled in a stable manner using the dissipative property of the Redheffer star product for cascading scattering matrices. The reflection and transmission dyadics for a general bianisotropic medium with an isotropic half space on both sides of the slab are presented in a coordinate-independent dyadic notation, as well as the reflection dyadic for a bianisotropic slab with perfect electric conductor backing (PEC). Several numerical examples that illustrate the performance of the stabilized algorithm are presented
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